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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-59 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Implementing Access Management (T) Attribute Description Organizational and Institutional Attributes Training and Other Training may be needed to improve awareness of access management among Personnel Needs transportation professionals. Training will help overcome institutional resistance to new approaches within transportation agencies and will reduce conflicts among stakeholders. Legislative Needs Governing bodies may need to adopt policies that require access management. Other Key Attributes None identified. Objective E. Improve Safety Awareness and Behavior Safety behavior and awareness are major factors in many bicycle crashes, and addressing them through improved skill education for bicyclists, better education about and enforcement of bicycle-related traffic laws (which educates both bicyclists and motorists), and increased use of helmets and other safety-related devices is an often-overlooked technique for reducing collisions involving bicyclists and reducing the severity of injuries from such collisions. Child bicyclists are deemed to be solely at fault 70 to 80 percent of the time in crashes with motor vehicles, while only about 40 percent of adult bicyclists are deemed to be at fault (Hunter et al., 1996). Both bicyclist and motorist are identified as contributing to the crash in 5 to 20 percent of crashes over various bicyclist ages. Motorists were deemed to be solely at fault in from 5 percent of crashes with the youngest aged bicyclists to about 36 percent of crashes involving adults ages 50 to 59. Improving safety awareness and behavior for all roadway users should help reduce these percentages. Strategy E1: Provide Bicyclist Skill Education (T) A comprehensive approach to bicyclist safety encompasses education and enforcement as well as changes to the built environment. Bicyclist education can provide bicyclists with the training, knowledge, and practical experience necessary to ride skillfully and interact safely with motorists on the roadway. Bicyclist educational programs can be carried out at many levels from distributing brochures or showing videos, to comprehensive school-based on- bike programs, to community or adult education or recreation facility-based program. Bicyclist educational programs can also target audiences from young preschool-age children to seniors. They may touch on a number of issues, including: safety-related training, bicycle-related laws, helmet information, and nearly any other behavioral aspects of bicycling. V-83

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Understanding the different needs for educational audiences and the resources available for each is important when considering educational activities. For example, the educational needs of children are substantially different from those of adult bicyclists. Similarly, language needs should be considered when evaluating educational materials. Resources for bicyclist education are extensive and provide information for many audiences, although as more is learned about the actual effectiveness of different education approaches and methods, additional resources that incorporate better information should be developed. Specifically, with increasing national diversity, materials should be developed for individuals with different ethnic and/or cultural backgrounds. General Education Resources The FHWA National Bicycle Safety Education Curriculum identifies and prioritizes the specific topic areas that should be addressed for various target audiences and includes a resource catalog with information on training programs that address each of the various topics. The Resource Catalog is also available as an online searchable database (www. bicyclinginfo.org/ee/fhwa.html). Users can search this database by key word(s), by a specific target audience (e.g., young bicyclists ages 9 through 12; adult bicyclists; motorists); and by selected topic or subtopic areas (e.g., bicycle-riding skills, rules of the road, essential equipment, riding for health and fitness, etc.). In 2006, NHTSA released the Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Resource Guide, which updates the previous bicycle resource guide and combines the new information with pedestrian resources, as well. The guide provides a compilation of existing and proposed countermeasures that can be used by a variety of implementers to help solve a wide range of bicyclist and pedestrian safety problems. The guide also includes an extensive listing of educational resources (DOT HS 809 977, available on CD-ROM from U.S. DOT). Age-Specific Education Resources The PBIC website provides an education page (http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/education. htm) that contains links to many bicyclist safety education programs, tools, and resources that can be used by professionals planning a program as well as by individual bicyclists. For example, the section for young bicyclists ages 9 through 12 contains links to sites with information on choosing the right bike and helmet and how to park and secure your bike, among others. The section for adult bicyclists contains links to materials available from the League of American Bicyclists ("League") covering areas ranging from "A Guide to Commuting for the Employee" to "How to Shift and Change Gears" to "Bike Maintenance 101." FHWA developed the "Bicycle Safety Education Resource Center," hosted by PBIC at http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/fhwa.html/, which includes a database with hundreds of case studies, examples, and recommended education messages and practices for all age groups. The database can be searched by word, age range, or main topic areas. With ready access to these resources, program developers do not need to reinvent the wheel to implement a bicycle safety education program, and young and old riders alike can readily find the information they need to be safer riders. The League operates a "BikeEd" program that provides education for many audiences. The program includes different courses for adults, children (5th to 7th grade), and commuters, as V-84

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES well as motorists. NHTSA's "SRTS for Middle School Youth" is designed to be taught by anyone and provides students with an overview of the safe routes to school initiative and the basic principles of walking and bicycling safely to school. It is hoped that this basic program will inspire schools and youth to initiate and develop a SRTS program in their school. For more information contact NHTSA at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov. Schools or groups wishing to advance to more in-depth bicycle training including on-bicycle experience may contact the League for assistance in finding local instructors to provide this series of classes. For more information see http://www.bikeleague.org. NHTSA has developed three bicycle safety videos, including: "Ride Smart-It's Time to Start" for elementary and middle school-age children. This video discusses why everyone should wear a bicycle helmet and proper helmet fitting. Another video for elementary and middle school-age children is "Bike Safe. Bike Smart." It discusses rules of the road for bicycling and reviews proper helmet fit. A third video, "Bicycle Safety Tips for Adults," discusses basic tips for choosing and fitting a bicycle, proper helmet fit, rules of the road, and responsibility for personal safety while bicycling. The League has also developed a video that further expands on the basic tips presented in the NHTSA video. This video, "Enjoy the Ride: Essential Bicycling Skills," may be purchased through the League. FHWA has also developed a "Good Practices Guide for Bicycle Safety Education" (http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/bestguide.cfm) that contains case study descriptions of 16 programs spanning riders of all ages, along with helpful information on planning, funding, implementing, and evaluating a program in your own community or state. Other Useful Resources A number of Spanish language materials have been developed including a version of "Be Smart. Bike Safe." NHTSA developed the "Bicycle Safety Activity Guide," a collection of educational materials and activities in Spanish and English that teachers, parents, and caregivers can use to teach bicycle safety to children ages 4 to 11. Using trained, adult crossing guards is another fairly simple but effective method of providing correction and education to bicyclists and pedestrians, particularly children traveling to and from school. Crossing guards can educate children on safe bicycling and walking behaviors, assist them in crossing at certain locations, and may help to encourage use of these modes in traveling to school, since they provide a measure of comfort that engineering treatments alone cannot provide. Additionally, well-trained adult crossing guards may assist in enforcing motorist speed limits, yielding, and other laws (through reporting offending motorists), and in educating motorists. The state of Florida requires that most localities provide minimum training using the Florida School Crossing Guard Training Guidelines, produced by the Florida DOT and administered by the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. The guidelines are available at: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/Safety/ped_bike/training/ped_bike_training.htm. A comprehensive guide to crossing guards has also been developed by the National Center for Safe Routes to School, and can be accessed at: http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/guide/ crossing_guard/index.cfm. V-85

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Other examples of bicycle education programs include: Chicago, IL--Mayor Daley's Bicycling Ambassadors and Bike Lane Education (http://www. chibikefed.org/ambassador/) BikeSafe Bicyclist Safety and Countermeasure Selection Guide case studies (available at http:// www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikesafe/): Duval County, FL--Injury Control for Bicycle-related Injury in Duval County, Florida (McCloskey et al.) Victoria, Canada--Share the Road: Motorist/Cyclist Traffic Rule Education and Enforcement Programs (Litman) EXHIBIT V-60 Strategy Attributes for Providing Bicyclist Education (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Targets Bicyclist education programs target the behavior of bicyclists. Expected This strategy is intended to teach bicyclists of all ages safe bicycling skills, including Effectiveness how to interact with motorists in traffic. Education programs should teach bicyclists the importance of having a bike that fits, maintaining the bike in good condition, and always wearing a helmet when riding. Bicycle safety training programs are based on the premise that behavior by bicyclists contributes to the risk of crashes and injuries, and that this behavior can be changed through training programs. Several studies have shown that most crashes were primarily due to some form of human error and very few were due to environmental conditions (Clarke and Tracy, 1995). Nationally, bicyclist errors contributed to almost 65 percent of the bicycle/motor vehicle fatalities in 1991. NHTSA's 1993 report indicated that the most common crashes were due to bicyclist's failure to yield (21.8 percent), improper crossing of roadway or intersection (12.6 percent), and failure to obey traffic signs, signals, or a police officer (8.6 percent) (Clarke and Tracy, 1995). Reports on a state level have similar data suggesting that the five leading contributing factors attributed to bicyclists in bicycle/motor-vehicle crashes were: (1) failure to yield right of way, (2) non-motorist error, (3) disregard for traffic control devices, (4) driver inattention/distraction, and (5) improper/unsafe lane use (Minnesota Department of Public Safety, 2005). The monograph "Training Programs for Bicycle Safety" (http://depts.washington.edu/ hiprc/pdf/report.pdf) includes a review of 27 educational programs for children and adults. The most comprehensive programs have all incorporated helmet education, traffic rules, safety guidelines, and on-bike training into their curricula. Six of these programs have been evaluated and shown to be effective in increasing participant's knowledge and observed riding skills. There has been little evaluation of program effectiveness in reducing injuries, or evaluation of long-term program effects. Keys to Success An education strategy should do more than just provide information. The goal is to motivate a change in specific behaviors to reduce the risk of bicyclist injuries. The most successful education programs encourage people to think about their own travel attitudes and behaviors and help them make informed, better choices. V-86

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-60 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Bicyclist Education (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Education should target all road users; one very important element of a comprehensive education program is to educate the general public and motorists about current laws relating to bicycles. Many State DOTs include an information page for relevant laws and regulations on their Bicycle and Pedestrian Program websites. A long-term commitment is required, both to reinforce learned behaviors and to accommodate new bicyclists. Long-term programs are also more likely to be effective in achieving results with regards to educating motorists about proper behavior around bicyclists. The most comprehensive programs have incorporated multiple educational elements, particularly those programs aimed at children. The length of these programs is highly variable, ranging from 1 hour to 40 or more hours. Many programs are strictly classroom based, while others utilize extensive riding experiences. Two common themes have emerged from the overview of various bicycle safety education programs. First, it is the opinion of many researchers that bicycle safety education curriculum for youth should be institutionalized in a school environment to reach more children more consistently (Thomas et al., 2005; Stutts and Hunter, 1990). Second, several experts feel that bicycle education curriculum should be presented as part of a continuum of traffic safety education that begins in elementary school and ends in high school, where children previously trained in bicycle safety transfer their knowledge and skills to motor vehicle driving skills and safety (Thomas et al., 2005; Stutts and Hunter, 1990). Another reason for implementing bicycle education in schools is that schools are more likely to administer a bicycle education course for a time period that will be sufficient for children to learn. Illustrating this point, a Canadian study that evaluated a 2-hour bicycle skills training program found that their brief skills training program (The Kids CAN-BIKE Festival) was not effective in improving safe bicycling behavior, knowledge, or attitudes among fourth grade children due to its inadequate time frame (Macarthur et al., 1998). However, it is perhaps unrealistic to expect schools to devote a sizable amount of time out of their curriculum for bicycle safety training. For older youths and adults, the optimal length of a training program is unclear. While a longer training program might impart more skills, few except the most dedicated bicycle riders will spend a substantial amount of time (and money) on bicycle training. For children, a comprehensive bicycle safety education program should include an on-bike component. The NHTSA-supported National Bicycle Safety Network (http://www.bicyclinginfo. org/nbsn/) has proposed that the following elements or messages be part of every education curriculum: Wear a helmet every time you ride. Ride with, not against, traffic. Don't ride on sidewalks--drivers don't expect it. Obey traffic laws and signs, and use proper hand signals. See and be seen--wear brightly colored or reflective clothing; use lights and reflectors. Stay alert--always look and listen for traffic, pedestrians, and other bicyclists. V-87

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-60 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Bicyclist Education (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Potential Difficulties Adequate educational materials are not available for all populations that may need education. For example, no resources for education relating to alcohol-impaired bicyclists could be found. (Note that the primary message should be convincing them not to ride while impaired.) Limited resources are available for many minority populations, particularly Hispanic audiences. Most Spanish language materials are developed locally and are not available nationally. There is no mechanism to identify and track most locally developed materials. The primary challenge of any bicycle safety education program is sustained results. Studies have shown that most one-time education activities have a maximum effect of 6 weeks, and by 6 months have lost most of their effectiveness (Thomas et al., 2005). Repeating education activities may be necessary to achieve a lasting result. Education programs and curriculums are different, with different intended audiences. Although many bicycle safety education materials and programs exist, it is important to choose the right program for your particular needs and situation. Some studies have also raised questions about the value of children's bicycle safety education as an injury prevention intervention, primarily because the links between safety knowledge, safe behavior, and fewer crashes is insufficiently researched (Thomas, et al., 2005). An early evaluation of the "BikeEd" program in Victoria, Australia, showed that it significantly increased children's bicycle knowledge and riding performance, but subsequent research revealed that trained children were no less likely than untrained children to receive emergency room treatment for a bicycle-related injury (Carlin et al., 1998). Another study evaluating the effect of skill training on injuries, a population-based case control study from Melbourne, Australia, further indicated that this type of education did not reduce injuries but appeared to actually increase injuries. This negative effect was stronger among children whose parents did not themselves bicycle, among low socio- economic groups, and younger children. The authors suggest skills training might produce harmful effects in some children, perhaps due to inadvertent encouragement of risk-taking behavior or of bicycling without proper supervision. Adult education can be particularly challenging. Anecdotal reports from adult bicyclist educators indicate that many adults are not receptive to education because the value of the education is not clear. Most adults feel that they already know how to ride a bicycle and are not aware of the safer behaviors they might learn through an education program. Liability is an unresolved potential difficulty. In some jurisdictions, educators may be liable during safety education or for the post-education activities of participants. In general, reasonable attention to the quality of the education program should avert liability concerns, although agencies should consult their legal advisors if this concern is raised. Clarification should also be sought to establish whether the liability concern is related to concerns about the actual safety training activities (i.e., conducting on- bicycle education or on-street practice), or is more general about the overall institutional fear of liability that might arise from encouraging (or even allowing) children to bicycle or walk to school. Each of these liability concerns might be addressable, but likely require different strategies. V-88

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-60 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Bicyclist Education (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Appropriate Measures The overall effectiveness of different and age-appropriate bicycle safety education and Data programs should be better evaluated, both to verify the usefulness of these programs and to improve the selection of most appropriate curricula and programs. In general, the appropriate measures for evaluating bicycle safety education programs should include the following: Changes in behavior Changes in knowledge Changes in crashes or injuries Program effectiveness evaluations should compare program participants to a comparable group that did not receive training. Outcomes assessed should include number and types of crashes, the number and/or severity of injuries, the level of helmet use, and the number of bicyclists in the area. An ideal assessment should also measure the extent to which the learned program skills are retained correctly and for the long term. As with most bicycle-related evaluations, better data regarding exposure would improve analysis and understanding of the effectiveness of bicycle safety education. Associated Needs Motorist education programs should also be addressed to improve bicyclist safety. Motorists are often also bicyclists, so this approach will increase the reach of safe bicycling information. Motorist education can also help improve motorist awareness and safe driving around bicyclists. Bicycle education programs should be thoroughly evaluated before their implementation. Plans and funding for proper evaluation should be set forth at the beginning of the program. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Coordination between interested agencies can provide a balanced approach to bicycle Institutional, and safety training, so that students receive information from more than one discipline Policy Issues (i.e., law enforcement and safety education) during the training. Issues Affecting Bicycle education programs can be implemented in less than 3 months. Implementation Time Costs Involved Costs for bicycle education programs vary widely depending on the nature of the program. Costs might range from no direct costs, with activities provided by volunteers, to extensive safety training sessions that might involve national experts and cost thousands of dollars. Training and Other Implementation of bicycle-related training requires expertise in safe bicycle riding Personnel Needs techniques. Qualified instructors should be used for bicycle education programs. Basic safety principles that don't include on-bicycle training can be taught by other qualified trainers. Legislative Needs No necessary legislative needs are identified, although legislative bodies may be able to influence any liability concerns by taking action to indemnify agency-sponsored programs. V-89

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-60 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Providing Bicyclist Education (T) Attribute Description Other Key Attributes National The National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety includes goals, strategies, and Strategies short- and long-term actions that can be taken to reduce injury and mortality associated with bicycle-related incidents. Efforts to change the bicycling environment have five key goals (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/bicycle_safety/): Motorists will share the road Bicyclists will ride safely Bicyclists will wear helmets The legal system will support safe bicycling Roads and paths will safely accommodate bicyclists Strategy E2. Improve Enforcement of Bicycle-related Laws (T) Along with engineering and education approaches to improving bicyclist safety, enforcement of traffic laws can help to create a safer riding environment, whether this enforcement is directed at the motorist or the bicyclist. With respect to motorists, efforts to reduce speeding in residential areas and along roadways frequented by bicyclists can make them safer places for bicyclists and also safer for other motorists and pedestrians sharing the roadway. Similarly, efforts to curb running of red lights and/or stop signs at intersections will benefit all road users. In most instances, enforcement programs should focus on simultaneous enforcement activities for both bicyclists and motorists, rather than just enforcement against one population. Dangerous behavior by motorists, including driving or passing too close to bicyclists, throwing objects at bicyclists, or yelling at bicyclists, can distract or frighten bicyclists and may cause them to crash. Law enforcement officers sometimes find it difficult to "ticket" bicyclists or even to stop a young child; however, actions such as wrong-way riding (riding facing traffic), weaving in and out of traffic, ignoring "Stop" signs, and riding without proper lights at night are dangerous, and these behaviors can create ill will with motorists. Law enforcement officers can take advantage of the opportunity to stop and educate the offending bicyclist about the importance of obeying traffic laws. Because helmet laws have been proven to reduce fatalities and serious head injuries, it is especially critical that officers enforce any helmet wearing law in effect, to increase the effectiveness of the law. Although law enforcement officers are trained to make motor vehicle traffic stops for speeding, red-light running, and other dangerous behaviors by motorists, they typically do not receive any special training with respect to bicycle law enforcement. It is not surprising, then, that there is very little active enforcement of traffic laws affecting V-90

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES bicyclists in U.S. communities. In the state of Wisconsin, however, the situation is improving because of an innovative training program that is offered upon request to individual police departments. Officers who participate in the 2-day "Enforcement for Bicycle Safety Course" are taught which laws to enforce and how to enforce them to improve safety. Participants significantly improve both their knowledge and attitudes about enforcement for bicycle safety and are more likely to make enforcement contacts in their communities. NHTSA offers a 2-day course to train law enforcement officers on steps that they can take to improve bicycling safety in their communities. The "Community Bicycle Safety for Law Enforcement" course provides guidance to officers interested in working with their communities to encourage bicycling and improve bicycle safety, with a focus on assessing safety needs and promoting bicycle safety programming (see http://www.bicyclinginfo. org/ee/enforce_officer03.htm for more information). Another source of support for law enforcement officers is the Law Enforcement Bicycle Association (LEBA), an organization "run by cops for cops" (http://www.leba.org). LEBA's courses focus on bicycling techniques and issues for bicycle-mounted police. For communities considering a more aggressive approach to enforcing bicycle traffic laws, the International Police Mountain Bike Association (http://www.ipmba.org) and a growing number of consultants offer training to help police departments understand bicycle law enforcement issues (http://www.witc.tec.wi.us/pgmpages/lawenf/ rlake/bicycle.htm). With sponsorship from NHTSA, the Massachusetts Bicycle Coalition developed a training program for law enforcement officers that covers most bicycle-related aspects of law enforcement. The program is intended to be taught by law enforcement officers to law enforcement officers as a stand-alone resource. The major objective of the program is to give law enforcement officers of all backgrounds the tools they need to properly enforce the laws that affect bicyclists. The program focuses on all police officers, including those who may not be interested in bicycling or who are not able to attend in-depth trainings. The guide, including video examples, can be downloaded at http://massbike.org/police/. The Florida Bicycle Association has been very active in developing multimedia materials for law enforcement education. These resources, available at http://www.floridabicycle.org, include "Ride on By," "Ride on By II," and "Understanding Bicycle Law Enforcement." A "Florida Bicycle Law Enforcement Guide" is also available. Finally, there are two recommended sources for information about bicycle-related laws: NHTSA has compiled a resource guide on laws related to pedestrian and bicycle safety. The guide is available for downloading at http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/ pedbimot/bike/resourceguide/index.html. The Massachusetts Bicycle Coalition also maintains a list of bicycle-related law resources at http://www.massbike.org/bikelaw/law_resources.htm and a page with links to state bicycle laws at http://www.massbike.org/bikelaw/statelaws.htm. Additional Resources: The PBIC maintains a resource listing of law enforcement-related materials: http://www. bicyclinginfo.org/ee/enforcement.htm. V-91

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-61 Strategy Attributes for Improving Enforcement of Bicycle-related Laws (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Targets This strategy directly targets activities of law enforcement officers as they relate to bicycling and indirectly targets behavior of bicyclists and motorists. Expected The ultimate goal of this strategy is to prevent crashes and enhance traffic safety. Many Effectiveness crashes can be avoided if both bicyclists and motorists follow the rules of the road. Heightened awareness among law officers of these rules can lead to: enforcing of laws, modeling of good behaviors, and recognizing and taking advantage of opportunities to educate both bicycles and motorists. Keys to Success Some communities have periodic enforcement blitzes, and others may concentrate enforcement efforts on particular intersections and behaviors in order to have the maximum impact. Enforcing bicycle laws has the same effect as enforcing other traffic laws: it curtails behavior that may result in injuries and fatalities. This point should be reinforced for law enforcement officers who do not feel that enforcing bicycle laws is worth the effort. Officers could probably make up to 100 ten-minute traffic stops for the same amount of effort as one fatal crash investigation, and they will have 100 individuals who are less likely to be involved in a crash because of their efforts. A successful law enforcement strategy must effectively communicate the message that "Crash prevention pays off." Bicycle law enforcement programs are most needed in communities and areas with high levels of bicycling, such as on and around college campuses. Enforcement campaigns should be preceded by PI&E programs that communicate to bicyclists and motorists the proper behaviors that will avoid enforcement action. Potential Difficulties Law enforcement officers are the only ones who can enforce laws, both for bicyclists and motorists, to improve bicycle safety. They must, therefore, be supportive of the enforcement effort. Because of the many demands placed on law enforcement officials' time, it may be difficult to convince police departments of the importance of officers' receiving training in bicycle law enforcement. Although "education" (i.e. traffic warnings from law enforcement officers) is emphasized over "ticketing," the problem of how to handle young offenders especially can be a roadblock to effective bicycle law enforcement. Most training programs address this issue. Law enforcement also involves enforcing motor vehicle operating laws as they relate to bicycling. Bicyclists often report law enforcement resistance to citing motorists for unsafe behavior around bicyclists. Specific common examples include non-enforcement (or incorrect enforcement against the bicyclist) of roadway positioning laws and refusal to investigate complaints about motorists. Effective training programs should also include information and training to provide law enforcement officers with the necessary skills to enforce laws pertaining to motorists, as well as bicyclists. Information on how law enforcement officers may enforce laws with motorists can be found at http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/ee/enforce_motorist.htm. Similarly, special skills may be needed to enforce laws with bicyclists, as well. Bicyclists may be difficult to stop for enforcement, may not have proper identification, or may be more resistant to authority than most motorists. Information on how law enforcement officers may enforce laws with bicyclists can be found at http://www.bicyclinginfo. org/ee/enforce_bicyclist.htm. V-92

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-61 (Continued) Strategy Attributes for Improving Enforcement of Bicycle-related Laws (T) Attribute Description Technical Attributes Appropriate Measures Process measures for bicycle-related law enforcement might include the number of and Data warnings and/or citations issued. Performance measures include the number of crashes involving bicyclists at driveways, and bicycle and motor vehicle volume data are needed to represent exposure. In addition, directly linking law enforcement activities with safety outcomes may be difficult, although they are generally thought to have an effect. Associated Needs None identified. Organizational and Institutional Attributes Organizational, Law enforcement agencies should adopt policies to enforce traffic laws; without a policy Institutional, and to enforce traffic laws for roadway users--including bicyclists--changes in attitudes and Policy Issues behaviors of officers may be difficult to achieve. Issues Affecting Law enforcement training can be prepared and implemented in less than 3 months. Implementation Time Costs Involved The Massachusetts Bicycle Coalition law enforcement training program is available as a freely downloadable course, although the course should be taught by an experienced instructor. The estimated cost for an officer to participate in a 2-day Wisconsin course is $90 to $100, with discounts available to sponsoring departments and some training costs covered by the state. Other training programs would have similar costs. Training and Other Law enforcement officers should be properly trained. Personnel Needs Legislative Needs None identified. Other Key Attributes National The National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety includes goals, strategies, and Strategies short- and long-term actions that can be taken to reduce injury and mortality associated with bicycle-related incidents. Efforts to change the cycling environment have five key goals (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/bicycle_safety/): Motorists will share the road Bicyclists will ride safely Bicyclists will wear helmets The legal system will support safe bicycling Roads and paths will safely accommodate bicyclists V-93