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SECTION VII Key References American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (1999). Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. Washington, DC. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (2004). Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities. Washington, DC. American Society for Testing and Materials International (2003). "Standard Specification for Nighttime Photometric Performance of Retroreflective Pedestrian Markings for Visibility Enhancement," ASTM E1501-99. West Conshohocken, PA. Antonucci, N. D., Hardy, K. K., Slack, K. L., Pfefer, R., and Neuman, T. R. (2004). NCHRP Report 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 12: A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Available at http:/ /safety.transportation.org/guides.aspx?cid=33. Attewell, R. G., Glase, K., and McFadden, M. (2001). Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention 33: 345352. Berkeley Bicycle Plan (1999). Available at http:/ /www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/transportation/ Bicycling/BB/Guidelines/chap1.htm. City of Berkeley, California. Bicycle Advisory Committee (1997). The San Francisco Bicycle PlanPart 6. San Francisco, CA. /www.sfgov.org/site/bac_page.asp?id=11544. Available at http:/ Blomberg, R. D., Hale, A., and Preusser, D. F. (1984). Conspicuity for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Definition of the Problem, Development and Test of Countermeasures. Report DOTHS-806-563. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Bucko, T. R., and Khorashadi, A. (2001). Evaluation of Milled-In Rumble Strips, Rolled-In Rumble Strips and Audible Edge Stripe. Office of Transportation Safety and Research, California Department of Transportation. Burgi, P. H., and Gober, D. E. (1977). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Study Volume 1: Hydraulic and Safety Characteristics of Selected Grate Inlets on Continuous Grades. Bureau of Reclamation and Federal Highway Administration. Burgi, P. H. (1978a). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Study Volume 2: Hydraulic Characteristics of Three Selected Grate Inlets on Continuous Grades. Report No. FHWA-RD-78-4. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Burgi, P. H. (1978b). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Study Volume 3: Hydraulic Characteristics of Three Selected Grate Inlets in a Slump Condition. Report No. FHWA-RD-78-70. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Burk, M., and Sallaberry, M. (2004). San Francisco's Shared Lane Pavement Markings: Improving Bicycle Safety. San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic. Available at http:/ /www.bicycle.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/dpt/bike/Bike_Plan/Shared%20Lane% 20Marking%20Full%20Report-052404.pdf. VII-1

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES California Department of Transportation (2005). Photographs courtesy of Ken McGuire. Carlin, J. B., Taylor, P., and Nolan, T. (1998). School based bicycle safety education and bicycle injuries in children: a case control study. Injury Prevention, 4(1): 2227. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Injury-Control Recommendations: Bicycle Helmets. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol 44, No. RR-l February 17, 1995. Chang, F. F. M. (1980). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Design Manual. Report No. FHWA-IP-80-13. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Chicago Department of Transportation (2002). Bike Lane Design Guide. Available at http:/ / www.bicyclinginfo.org/pdf/bike_lane.pdf. City of Toronto, Canada (2003). City of Toronto Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Collision Study. Available at http:/ /www.toronto.ca/transportation/publications/bicycle_motor-vehicle/index.htm. Clarke, A., and Tracy, L. (1995). Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis. Report No. FHWA-RD- 94-062. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Cross, K. D., and Fisher, G. A. (1977). Study of Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches. Santa Barbara, California: Anacapa Sciences, Inc. Demosthenes, P. (2003). How Planning Decisions Impact Highway Collision Histories. Anaheim, California: 2nd Urban Street Symposium. Available at http:/ /gulliver.trb.org/conferences/ USS2/default.htm. Edwards and Kelcey (2002). Kane County Bicycle and Pedestrian PlanPublic Summary. Kane County, IL: Kane County Forest Preserve District, Kane County, Kane County Council of Mayors. Available at http:/ /www.co.kane.il.us/dot/COM/Bicycle/FINAL/bipedplan.pdf. Elefteriadou, L., El-Gindy, M., Torbic, D., Garvey, P., Homan, A., Jiang, Z., Pecheux, B., and Tallon, R. (2000). Bicycle-Tolerable Shoulder Rumble Strip. Report Number: PTI 2K15. Pennsylvania State University, The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute. Fatality Analysis Reporting System. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Available /www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/Main/index.aspx. (Last accessed December 15, 2007.) at: http:/ Federal Highway Administration (1999). FHWA GuidanceBicycle and Pedestrian Provisions of Federal Transportation Legislation. Available at http:/ /www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ bikeped/bp-guid.htm. Federal Highway Administration (2001). Technical Advisory for Roadway Shoulder Rumble Strips. /safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fourthlevel/pro_res_rumble.library.htm#Papers. Available at http:/ Federal Highway Administration (2006). FHWA Program Guidance--Safe Routes to School Federal Program. Available at http:/ /safety.fhwa.dot.gov/saferoutes/srtsguidance.htm. Gluck, J., Levinson, H., and Stover, V. (1999). NCHRP Report 420, "Impacts of Access Management Techniques." Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Available at http:/ /www.trb.org. Harkey, D. L., Mekemsom, J., Chen, M. C., and Krull, K. (1999). Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool. Product no. FHWA-RD-099-192. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. VII-2

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Harkey, D. L., Stewart, J. R., and Rodgman, E. R. (1996). Evaluation of Shared-Use Facilities for Bicycles and Motor Vehicles in Florida. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Transportation. Harwood, D. W., Council, F. M., Hauer, E., Hughes, W. E., and Vogt, A. (2000). Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highway. Report No. FHWA-99-207. Available at http:/ /www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pubs/99207.pdf. Herrstedt, L., Agustsson, L., Nielsen, M. A., and Lei, K. M. (1993). "Safety of Cyclists in Urban Areas." Traffic Safety on Two Continents Conference. September 1993. Hunter, W. W. (2000a). Evaluation of a Combined Lane/Right-Turn Lane in Eugene, Oregon. Report FHWA-RD-00-151. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Available at http:/ / www.walkinginfo.org/pdf/r&d/blue_box_combined.PDF. Hunter, W. W. (2000b). Evaluation of an Innovative Application of the Bike Box. Report FHWA- RD-00-141. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Available at http:/ /www. walkinginfo.org/pdf/r&d/bikebox.PDF. Hunter, W. W., Harkey, D. L., Stewart, J. R., and Birk, M. L. (2000). Evaluation of the Blue Bike Lane Treatment Used in Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Conflict Areas in Portland, Oregon. Report No. FHWA-RD-00-150. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Available at http:/ / www.walkinginfo.org/pdf/r&d/bluelane.PDF. Hunter, W. W., Stewart, J. R., Stutts, J. C., Huang, H. H., and Pein, W. E. (1998). A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Final Report. Report FHWA-RD-99-034. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Hunter, W. W., Stewart, J. R., Stutts, J. C., Huang, H. H., and Pein, W. E. (1999). A Comparative Analysis of Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Final Report. Report FHWA-RD-99-034. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Available at http:/ /www.fhwa.dot.gov/ tfhrc/safety/pubs/99034/99034.pdf. Hunter, W. W., Stutts, J. C., Pein, W. E., and Cox, C. L. (1996). Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990's. Report FHWA-RD-95-163. McLean, VA: Office of Safety and Traffic Operations Research & Development, Federal Highway Administration. Jorgensen and Rundkorsler (1991). En Brugbar Regulering? Dansk Vejtidsskrift nr. 5. Klop, J., and Khattak, A. (1999). "Factors influencing bicycle crash severity on two-lane undivided roadways in North Carolina." Transportation Research Record 1674. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. 7885. Korve, M. J., and Niemeier, D. A. (2002). Benefit-Cost Analysis of Added Bicycle Phase at Existing Signalized Intersection. Journal of Transportation Engineering. 128(1) Landis, B. W., Vattikuti, V. R., Ottenberg, R. M., Petritsch, T. A., Guttenplan, M., and Crider, L. B. (2003). "Intersection Level of Service for the Bicycle Through Movement." Transportation Research Record 1828. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Layfield, R. E., and Maycock, G. "Pedal Cyclists at Roundabouts." Traffic Engineering and Control. Vol. 27, No. 6, June 1986. Lott, D. F., and Lott, D. Y. (1976). Effect of bike lanes on ten classes of bicycle-automobile accidents in Davis, California. Journal of Safety Research. 8(4): 171179. VII-3

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Macarthur, C., Parkin, P. C., Sidky, M., and Wallace, W. (1998). Evaluation of a bicycle skills training program for young children: a randomized controlled trial. Injury Prevention. 4(2): 116121. Minnesota Department of Transportation (1996). Minnesota Bicycle Transportation Planning and Design Guidelines. Available at http:/ /www.dot.state.mn.us/sti/mg1004.pdf. Minnesota Department of Public Safety (2005). Office of Traffic Safety, "Contributing Factors in 2005 Bicycle Crashes." Available online at http:/ /www.sharetheroadmn.org/crash_minnesota. html. (Accessed December 17, 2007.) Moeur, R. (2000). "Analysis of Gap Patterns in Longitudinal Rumble Strips to Accommodate Bicycle Travel." Transportation Research Record 1705. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Moeur, R. C. Bicycle Traffic Control. ITE Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. August 14, 1999. Nabti, J. M., and Ridgway, M. D. (2002). Innovative Bicycle Treatments: An Informational Report of the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the ITE Pedestrian and Bicycle Council. Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1994, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005: Pedalcyclists. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Available at: http:/ /www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/ nrd-30/ncsa/AvailInf.html. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Manual Accident Typing for Bicyclist Accidents: Coder's Handbook. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. n.d. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2003). Traffic Safety Facts 2003. Report DOT HS 809 775. Washington, DC: NHTSA, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Available at: http:/ /www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/departments/nrd-30/ncsa/AvailInf.html. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2006). Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety Resource Guide. Washington, DC. Available at: http:/ /www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/ bike/BikePedestrian/index.htm. (Accessed December 15, 2007.) Neuman, T. R., Pfefer, R., Slack, K. L., Hardy, K. K., Harwood, D. W., Potts, I. B., Torbic, D. J., and Rabbani, E. R. K. (2003). Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. NCHRP Report 500, Volume 5: A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Available at http://safety.transportation.org/guides.aspx?cid=26. North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Trans portation. North Carolina Bicycle and Pedestrian Crashes. Available at: http:/ /www. pedbikeinfo.org/pbcat/. (Accessed February 18, 2007.) Noyce, D. A., and Dharmaraju, R. (2002). An Evaluation of Technologies for Automated Detection and Classification of Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Report UMTC-02-01, University of Massachusetts Transportation Center. Available at http:/ /www.walkinginfo.org/pdf/UMTCBikeReport 02-01.pdf. Oregon Department of Transportation (1995). Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan. Available at http:/ /www.odot.state.or.us/techserv/bikewalk/toc-imag.htm. VII-4

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Oregon Department of Transportation (1998). Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan. Available at http:/ /www.odot.state.or.us/techserv/bikewalk/toc-imag.htm. Outcalt, W. (2001). Bicycle-Friendly Rumble Strips. Report CDOT-DTD-R-2001-4. Denver, CO: Research Branch, Colorado Department of Transportation. Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. The Bicycle Matrix. Available at http:/ /www. bicyclinginfo.org/matrix/. (Accessed February 18, 2007.) Pelts, D., Bustos, T., and Flecker, J. (1996). The Use of Bicycle Signal Heads at Signalized Intersections. Davis, CA: City of Davis Public Works Department. Persaud, B. N., Retting, R. A., Garder, P. E., and Lord, D. (2001). "Safety Effect of Roundabout Conversions in the United States: Empirical Bayes Observational Before-After Study." Trans- portation Research Record 1751. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. Preusser, D. F., Leaf, W. A., DeBartolo, K. B., Blomberg, R. D., and Levy, M. M. (1982). The Effect of Right-Turn-on-Red on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Accidents. Journal of Safety Research. 13(2): 4555. Pugh, C. A. (1980a). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Study Volume 4: Hydraulic Characteristics of Slotted Drain Inlets. Report No. FHWA-RD-79-106. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Pugh, C. A. (1980b). Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Study Volume 5: Hydraulic Design of General Slotted Drain Inlets. Report No. FHWA-RD-80-081. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Qureshi, M., Sugathan, N., Lasod, R., and Spring, G. (2004). Design of Single Point Urban Interchanges. Report No. RDT 04-011. University of Missouri-Rolla, Missouri Department of Transportation. Available at: http:/ /168.166.124.22/RDT/reports/RI02015/RDT04011.pdf. Raborn, C. (2004). National Bicycling and Walking Study: Ten Year Status Report. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Available at: http:/ /www. bicyclinginfo.org/pp/nbws1.htm. Raborn, C., and Toole, J. (2006). Safe Routes to School Program Guidance: Review of Existing State Programs and Stakeholder Interviews. Office of Safety, Federal Highway Administration. Retting, R. A., Nitzburg, M. S., Farmer, C. M., and Knoblauch, R. L. (2002). Field Evaluation of Two Methods for Restricting Right Turn on Red to Promote Pedestrian Safety. ITE Journal. 72(1). Robinson, B. W., Rodegerdts, L., Scarborough, W., Kittelson, W., Troutbeck, R., Brilon, W., Bondzio, L., Courage, K., Kyte, M., Mason, J., Flannery, A., Myers, E., Bunker, J., and Jacquemart, G. (2000). Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. Report No. FHWA-RD-000-067. Available at: http:/ /www.tfhrc.gov/safety/00068.htm. Robinson, D. L. No clear evidence from countries that have enforced the wearing of helmets. BMJ 2006; 332: 722725 (25 March 2006). Rubins, D. I., and Handy, S. (2005). "Times of Bicycle Crossings: Case Study of Davis, California." In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1939. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Academies. VII-5

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic (2003). City of San Francisco Bicycle Plan Update: Supplemental Design Guidelines. Available at: http:/ /www.sfgov.org/site/uploadedfiles/ dpt/bike/Bike_Plan/SF_Design_Guidelines_Feb04.pdf. Schieber, R., and Vegega, M. (2002). Education versus environmental countermeasures. Injury Prevention. 8: 1011. Schnll, R., Lange, J., Fabian, I., Klle, M., Schtte, F., Alrutz, D., Fechtel, H. W., Stellmacher- Hein, J., Brckner, T., and Meyhfer H. (1992). Sicherung von Radfahrern an stdtischen Knotenpunkten (Safeguarding bicyclists in urban intersections). Bericht der Bundesanstalt fr Straenwesen zum Forschungsprojekt 8952. Schoon, C., and Minnen, J. "The Safety of Roundabouts in the Netherlands." Traffic Engineer- ing and Control. Vol. 35, No. 3, March 1994. Shen, L. D., Elbadrawi, H. R., and Ospina, D. I. (2000). Bicycle and Pedestrian Considerations at Roundabouts. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Transportation. Souleyrette, R., McDonald, T., Hans, Z., Kamyab, A., Welch, T., and Storm, B. (2001). Paved Shoulders on Primary Highways in Iowa: An Analysis of Shoulder Surfacing Criteria, Costs, and Benefits. Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University. Available at: http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/reports/pavedshoulder.pdf. Stutts, J. C., and Hunter, W. W. (1990). Evaluation of a bicycle safety curriculum for elementary school age children. Highway Safety Research Center, North Carolina University at Chapel Hill. Tan, C. (1996). Crash-Type Manual for Bicyclists. Report No. FHWA-RD-96-104. Available at: http:/ /www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pedbike/ctanbike/ctanbike.htm. Thomas, L., Masten, S. V., and Stutts. J. C. (2005). Impact of School-Based, Hands-On Bicycle Safety Education Approaches for School-Aged Children: An Evaluation of School Based Bicycle Safety Education Programs Incorporating On Bike Instruction. National Highway Traffic Safety Adminis- tration, U.S. Department of Transportation. U.S. Access Board. Available online at http:/ /www.access-board.gov/. (Accessed February 18, 2007.) U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration (1994a). National Bicycling and Walking Study. FHWA Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management TechniquesTheir Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians. Report No. FHWA-PD-93-028. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration (1994b). The National Bicycling and Walking Study: Transportation Choices for a Changing America. Final Report. Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration (2003). Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. Washington, DC. Available at: http:/ / mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-2003.htm. U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Highway Administration (2006). Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Available at http:/ /www.walkinginfo.org/training/ fhwa-training.cfm. VII-6

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SECTION VII--KEY REFERENCES Van Schagen, I. (2003). Traffic Calming Schemes: Opportunities and Implementation Strategies. Report No. R-2003-22. SWOV. Leidschendam, Netherlands. Available at http:/ /www.swov. nl/rapport/R-2003-22.pdf. Wachtel, A. (2000). Re-Evaluating Traffic Signal Detector Loops. Bicycle Forum. 50 Available at: http:/ /www.bikeplan.com/aw-signals.pdf. Wachtel, A., Forester, J., and Pelz, D. "Signal Clearance Timing for Bicyclists." ITE Journal. 65(3): 3845. March 1995. Washington State Department of Transportation (2001). WSDOT's Bicycle Facilities Design Guidance. Available at: http:/ /www.wsdot.wa.gov/EESC/Design/DesignManual/ desEnglish/1020-E.pdf. Wilkinson, W., Clarke, A., Epperson, R., and Knoblauch, W. (1994). Selecting Roadway Design Treatments to Accommodate Bicycles. Report: FHWA-RD-92-073. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Williams, J., Burgess, B., Moe, P., and Wilkinson, B. (1998). Implementing Bicycle Improvements at the Local Level. Report FHWA-98-105. Available at: http:/ /safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/ docs/localbike.pdf. Wisconsin Department of Transportation (2003). "Wisconsin Bicycle Planning Guidance, 2003." Available at: http:/ /www.dot.state.wi.us/projects/state/docs/bike-guidance.pdf. (Accessed February 18, 2007.) Woo, D. C., and Jones, J. S. (1974). Hydraulic Characteristics of Two Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlet Designs. Federal Highway Administration. Available at: http:/ /isddc.dot.gov/OLPFiles/ FHWA/009469.pdf. Zador, P. L. (1984). Right-Turn-on-Red Laws and Motor Vehicle Crashes: A Review of the Literature. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 16(4). Zegeer, C. V., Cynecki, M., Fegan, J., Gilleran, B., Lagerwey, P., Tan, C., and Works, R. (1994). Summary Report on FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and The Netherlands. Report No. FHWA-PL-95-006. Available at: http:/ /ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/ bikeped.html. Zegeer, C. V., Stewart, J. R., Huang, H. H., and Lagerway, P. A. (2002). Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines. Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075. Available online at http:/ /www.walkinginfo.org/ pdf/r&d/crosswalk_021302.pdf. Zegeer, C. V., Stutts, J., Huang, H., Cynecki, M. J., Van Houten, R., Alberson, B., Pfefer, R., Neuman, T. R., Slack, K. L., and Hardy, K. K. (2004). NCHRP Report 500, Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan. Volume 10: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians. Available at: http:/ /safety.transportation.org/guides.aspx? cid=29. VII-7