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SECTION V Description of Strategies Objectives of the Emphasis Area Deciding on the set of treatments that will provide the greatest safety benefits for bicyclists and other roadway users requires transportation and land-use planners, engineers, law enforcement officials, educators, and community leaders to engage in problem-solving. The problem-solving effort will often require application of professional judgment, as well as judgments based upon understanding of the character and needs of the particular community. Tools and extensive resources are available to help those planning to improve safety for bicyclists. AASHTO has produced the Green Book supplement, "Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities," with a revision expected in 2008. The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center (PBIC) and FHWA supported development of a software package called "BikeSafe," which provides guidance on improvement measures and matching countermeasures to precipitating causes, and includes a catalogue of more than 70 case studies. BikeSafe may be found at http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikesafe. PBIC also hosts "BikeCost," a cost-benefit estimation tool for bicycle-related infrastructure construction and maintenance. Professionals considering infrastructure improvements can use BikeCost to estimate costs for many facilities, and improve their project selection process by better understanding project costs. BikeCost may be found at http://www. bicyclinginfo.org/bikecost. Reducing the number and severity of collisions involving bicyclists requires strategies that are targeted towards addressing the main factors that lead to collisions. Based on what is known about bicycle-related crashes, the following objectives--targeted either toward locations where crashes occur or toward the causal factors of crashes--are most likely to reduce the number and severity of crashes: Reduce bicycle crashes at intersections Reduce bicycle crashes along roadways Reduce motor vehicle speeds Reduce bicycle crashes at midblock crossings Improve safety awareness and behavior Increase use of bicycle safety equipment Reduce influence of hazards Each of these strategies can be accomplished through a variety of the 23 individual strategies (treatments) presented in Exhibit V-1. Most strategies will work best when V-1

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES EXHIBIT V-1 Emphasis Area Objectives and Strategies Objectives Strategies A. Reduce bicycle crashes at intersections A1. Improve visibility at intersections (T) A2. Improve signal timing and detection (T) A3. Improve signing (T) A4. Improve pavement markings at intersections (T) A5. Improve intersection geometry (T) A6. Restrict right turn on red (RTOR) movements (E) A7. Accommodate bicyclists through roundabouts (T) A8. Provide an overpass or underpass (T) B. Reduce bicycle crashes along roadways B1. Provide safe roadway facilities for parallel travel (T) B2. Provide contraflow bicycle lanes (T) B3. Improve bicyclists' visibility (T) B4. Improve roadway signage (T) B5. Provide bicycle-tolerable shoulder rumble strips (T) C. Reduce motor vehicle speeds C1. Implement traffic calming techniques (P) C2. Implement speed enforcement (T) D. Reduce bicycle crashes at midblock crossings D1. Improve driveway intersections (T) D2. Implement access management (T) E. Improve safety awareness and behavior E1. Provide bicyclist skill education (T) E2. Improve enforcement of bicycle-related laws (T) F. Increase use of bicycle safety equipment F1. Increase use of bicycle helmets (P) F2. Increase rider and bicycle conspicuity (T) G. Reduce effect of hazards G1. Fix or remove surface irregularities (T) G2. Provide routine maintenance of bicycle facilities (T) P = proven; T = tried; E = experimental used at multiple locations, so that they become standard and expected by roadway users, and in combination with other treatments, so that multiple causal factors are addressed. It is important to note that most of the strategies--although tried--have not been proven effective at reducing bicyclist-motor vehicle crashes. More research is needed to demonstrate crash reduction effects. In addition, many of the strategies (treatments) may help accomplish more than one single objective. It is important for transportation professionals and others charged with improving V-2

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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES conditions for bicyclists to choose the right combination of treatments to accomplish the greatest desired effect with the available resources. In some cases, there may be a tradeoff between bicyclist and vehicular crashes, i.e., a particular strategy, implemented in a particular location, may succeed in reducing either vehicular or bicyclist crashes, but also contribute to an increase in crashes of the other mode. In general, all types of road users must be considered when selecting a strategy for implementation. Factors such as vehicular speeds and volumes, volumes of bicycle traffic, roadway function, and availability of alternate routes should be considered when making decisions about measures for reducing bicycle crashes. Those involved in these decisions must remember that bicycle travel is often utilitarian, although it is a common misperception that much bicycle travel is for recreation or exercise. FHWA guidance reinforces that bicyclists should be expected on all facilities where they are legal, and designers should accommodate them as a matter of routine practice (FHWA, 1999). In the best situations, bicycle-related improvements also increase safety for all road users, including motorists and pedestrians. Comprehensive Safe Routes to School Programs Those involved in transportation engineering, planning, design, education, and safety should be aware of Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs as a potential comprehensive technique for improving the transportation safety for children traveling to and from school. These are summarized here to reinforce their comprehensive and cross-cutting nature. All of the projects or activities recommended as strategies in this guide could be implemented as part of an SRTS program, as the types of goals likely to be part of SRTS programs closely align with the objectives of this guide. SRTS programs are comprehensive programs that involve making safety-related changes to the built environment, implementing extensive child bicyclist (and pedestrian) safety education, and increasing traffic law enforcement around schools. SRTS programs are also intended to increase the number of children walking or bicycling to school, so SRTS programs usually include encouragement components as well. A federal SRTS program was established by FHWA in 2005, and state and local programs have been operating since the late 1990s. In addition to their comprehensive nature regarding infrastructure and noninfrastructure activities, SRTS programs are characterized by a collaborative and participatory process involving transportation professionals, parents and teachers, school officials, local officials, and students. The recent expansion of SRTS programs will continue to increase demand for effective and appropriate countermeasures specifically intended for children and school-related travel. The Safe Routes to School Online Guide, available at http://www.saferoutesinfo. org/guide/, includes many Safe Routes-related countermeasures and examples of implementations. More about the broad SRTS concept and specific applications, including the full range of comprehensive activities and projects, information about selecting appropriate activities, and evaluation strategies can be learned from the National SRTS Clearinghouse at http://www.saferoutesinfo.org, which also includes links to other key resources and publications. The National Clearinghouse will also develop a brief guide for incorporating SRTS programs into state strategic highway safety plans. V-3