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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES · Street improvements for bicyclists are often made in conjunction with other improvements for other roadway users, making it difficult to separate the effects of the bicyclist-oriented improvements. · Behavioral elements often play a significant role in bicyclist-related crashes, and differentiating between the precipitating factors in any given crash and the effect of each applicable countermeasure (both environmental and behavioral) is extremely difficult. As a result of these types of difficulties, evaluation work has often focused upon surrogate measures, primarily related to bicyclist and vehicle behaviors and conflicts. Although these surrogates have not been solidly demonstrated to be linked to crash experience, they may serve as interim indications of safety impacts, until more valid evaluations become available. When designing facilities for bicyclists, it is important to account for the interaction of bicyclists with other roadway users. For example, large trucks may create special problems for bicyclists, such as exaggerated lateral trailer movement during regular travel down a lane, or trailer off-tracking while turning right (and possibly striking a bicyclist well before the intersection). Also, compared to other motor vehicles, some trucks have longer stopping distances, limited visibility (e.g., blind spots), and problems with nighttime visibility. Pedestrians also use roadway facilities and sometimes conflict with bicyclists. In short, those planning improvements for bicyclists (or any other roadway users) need to provide a roadway environment that balances the needs of all road users. Related Strategies for Creating a Truly Comprehensive Approach The strategies listed above, and described in detail below, are those considered unique to this emphasis area. However, to create a truly comprehensive approach to the highway safety problems associated with this emphasis area, there are related strategies recommended as candidates in any program planning process. These are of five types: Public information and education (PI&E) programs, enforcement of traffic laws, strategies to improve emergency medical and trauma system services, strategies directed at improving the safety management system, and strategies detailed in other emphasis area guides. Public Information and Education Programs (PI&E) Many highway safety programs can be effectively enhanced with a properly designed PI&E campaign. The primary experience with PI&E campaigns in highway safety is to reach an audience across an entire jurisdiction, or a significant part of it. However, it may be desired to focus a PI&E campaign on a location-specific problem. While this is a relatively untried approach, as compared to area-wide campaigns, use of roadside signs and other experimental methods may be tried on a pilot basis. Within this guide, where the application of PI&E campaigns is deemed appropriate, it is usually in support of some other strategy. In such a case, the description of that strategy will suggest this possibility (see the attribute for each strategy entitled, "Associated Needs for, or Relation to, Support Services"). Since independent PI&E campaigns are deemed appropriate for the bicyclist emphasis area, they are explained in greater detail as part of implementing Strategies E1, E2, F1, and F2. V-5
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SECTION V--DESCRIPTION OF STRATEGIES Enforcement of Traffic Laws Well-designed and wellmanaged law-enforcement programs can have a significant positive effect on highway safety. It is well-established, for instance, that an effective way to reduce crashes and their severity is to have jurisdiction-wide programs that enforce an effective law against driving under the influence (DUI), or driving without seatbelts. When that law is vigorously enforced, with well-trained officers, the frequency and severity of highway crashes can be significantly reduced. This should be an important element in any comprehensive highway safety program. Enforcement programs are conducted at specific locations by the nature of how they must be performed. The effect (e.g., lower speeds, greater use of seatbelts, giving right-of-way to pedestrians or bicyclists, reduced red-light running, safer vehicles, and reduced impaired driving) may occur at or near the specific location where the enforcement is applied. Coordinating the effort with an appropriate PI&E program can often enhance this effect. However, in many cases (e.g., speeding, yielding right-of-way to pedestrians and bicyclists, and seatbelt usage) the impact is area-wide or jurisdiction-wide. The effect can be either positive (i.e., the desired reductions occur over a greater part of the system) or negative (i.e., the problem moves to another location as road users move to new routes where enforcement is not applied). A pilot program is recommended when it is unclear how the enforcement effect may impact behavior or where it is desired to try an innovative and untried method. Within this guide, the application of enforcement programs is often deemed appropriate in support of some other strategy. Many of those strategies can be targeted at either the whole system or a specific location. In such cases, the description for that strategy will suggest this possibility (see the attribute area for each strategy entitled, "Associated Needs for, or Relation to, Support Services"). For the bicyclist emphasis area, an independent enforcement program is deemed appropriate and explained in detail in Strategy E2. Strategies to Improve Emergency Medical and Trauma System Services When bicyclists are struck by vehicles, the risk of serious or fatal injury is high. Rapid and proper treatment of injured parties at highway crashes can have a significant impact on survival, as well as recovery. Thus, a comprehensive emergency care program is a basic part of a highway safety infrastructure. While the types of strategies that are included here are often thought of as simply support services, they can be critical to the success of a comprehensive highway safety program. Therefore, for this emphasis area, an effort should be made to determine if improvements could be made, especially for programs that are focused upon location-specific (e.g., corridors) or area-specific (e.g., rural areas) issues. Strategies Directed at Improving the Safety Management System The management of the highway safety system is essential to success. There should be in place a sound organizational structure, as well as infrastructure of laws, policies, etc., to monitor, control, direct, and administer a comprehensive approach to highway safety. It is important that a comprehensive program not be limited to one jurisdiction, such as a state DOT. Local agencies are often responsible for the majority of the road system and its related safety problems. They may also have a better understanding of local problems. Jurisdictions V-6