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SECTION I--SUMMARY be over-represented in other parallel path crashes (which tend to be more severe) including motorist over-taking crashes, motorist turn/merge in front of bicyclist on a parallel path, as well as in bicyclist overtaking motorist crashes. Although declining in recent years, the fatality and injury rates among child riders, in particular the 10 to 15 year age group, remain the highest per capita among any age group. About one-fifth of bicyclist traffic fatalities were between the ages of 5 and 15 in 2004. The share of fatalities accounted for by those under age 16 has been declining in recent years, from 37 percent in 1994 to 21 percent in 2004 (NHTSA, 2004). Both the number and the proportion of fatalities among adults ages 35 and up has been increasing, from 36 percent of all bicyclist fatalities in 1994 to 59 percent in 2004. Crashes involving adult bicyclists ages 25 and up tend to be more serious, resulting in fatal and disabling injuries a higher percentage of the time. These trends may be due in part to where adults ride, the types of crashes adults tend to be involved in, and changes in the bicycle riding population. Objectives of the Emphasis Area Reducing the number and severity of collisions involving bicyclists requires strategies that are targeted towards addressing the main factors that lead to collisions. Based on what is known about bicycle-related crashes, the following objectives--targeted both toward locations where crashes occur as well as toward the causal factors of crashes--are most likely to reduce the number and/or severity of crashes: · Reduce bicycle crashes at intersections · Reduce bicycle crashes along roadways · Reduce motor vehicle speeds · Reduce bicycle crashes at midblock crossings · Improve safety awareness and behavior · Increase use of bicycle safety equipment · Reduce influence of hazards Each of these strategies can be accomplished through a variety of the 23 individual strategies (i.e., treatments) presented in Exhibit I-3. Most strategies will work best when used at multiple locations, so that they become standard and expected by roadway users, and in combination with other treatments, so that multiple causal factors are addressed. In addition, many of the strategies may help accomplish more than one single objective. It is important for transportation professionals and others charged with improving conditions for bicyclists to choose the right combination of treatments to accomplish the maximum desired effect with the available resources. Finally, those involved in transportation engineering, planning, design, education, and safety should be aware of Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs as a potential comprehensive technique for improving the transportation safety for children traveling to and from school. SRTS programs are comprehensive programs that involve making safety-related changes to I-5
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SECTION I--SUMMARY EXHIBIT I-3 Emphasis Area Objectives and Strategies Objectives Strategies A. Reduce bicycle crashes at intersections A1. Improve visibility at intersections (T) A2. Improve signal timing and detection (T) A3. Improve signing (T) A4. Improve pavement markings at intersections (T) A5. Improve intersection geometry (T) A6. Restrict right turn on red (RTOR) movements (E) A7. Accommodate bicyclists through roundabouts (T) A8. Provide an overpass or underpass (T) B. Reduce bicycle crashes along roadways B1. Provide safe roadway facilities for parallel travel (T) B2. Provide contraflow bicycle lanes (T) B3. Improve bicyclists' visibility (T) B4. Improve roadway signage (T) B5. Provide bicycle-tolerable shoulder rumble strips (T) C. Reduce motor vehicle speeds C1. Implement traffic calming techniques (P) C2. Implement speed enforcement (T) D. Reduce bicycle crashes at midblock crossings D1. Improve driveway intersections (T) D2. Implement access management (T) E. Improve safety awareness and behavior E1. Provide bicyclist skill education (T) E2. Improve enforcement of bicycle-related laws (T) F. Increase use of bicycle safety equipment F1. Increase use of bicycle helmets (P) F2. Increase rider and bicycle conspicuity (T) G. Reduce effects of hazards G1. Fix or remove surface irregularities (T) G2. Provide routine maintenance of bicycle facilities (T) P = proven; T = tried; and E = experimental the built environment, implementing extensive child bicyclist (and pedestrian) safety education, and increasing traffic law enforcement around schools. SRTS programs are also intended to increase the number of children walking or bicycling to school, so programs usually include encouragement components as well. More about SRTS, including the full range of comprehensive activities and projects, information about selecting appropriate activities, and evaluation strategies can be learned from the National SRTS Clearinghouse (established by the U.S. Department of Transportation) at: http://www.saferoutesinfo.org. I-6