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SECTION II--INTRODUCTION Progress has been made on the two NBWS goals. The goal of reducing injuries and fatalities by 10 percent has been surpassed. The number of bicyclist and pedestrian fatalities decreased by 18 percent from 1993 to 2003; bicyclist fatalities dropped by 23.3 percent. The number of bicyclists injured in collisions with motor vehicles decreased by 35.3 percent over the same time period (Raborn, 2004), but these decreases may reflect a downward trend in overall bicycling as much as they indicate safety improvements. Since 2003, however, these trends have reversed: as of 2005, the decrease in bicyclist fatalities from 1993 had declined to less than 4 percent. So, progress has been made on reducing bicyclist injuries and fatalities, but that progress appears now to be eroding. The NBWS goal of doubling the percentage of walking and bicycling trips has not been accomplished, although the number of trips has increased and perhaps doubled. In 1990, there were an estimated 1.7 billion bicycling trips; in 2001, that number had almost doubled to 3.3 billion. Combined walking and bicycling trip numbers increased from 19.7 billion to 38.6 billion. The percentage of bicycle trips, however, increased a mere one-tenth of a per- cent (from 0.7 percent to 0.8 percent), while combined trips increased from 7.9 percent to 9.5 percent. The disparity between the large increase in trip numbers and the small increase in trip percentages can be explained by the explosive growth in total reported trips of all modes; from 249 billion in 1990 to 407 billion in 2001 (Raborn, 2004). With current Federal policies and guidance and the resources now available to improve conditions for bicycling, any agency charged with construction, operation, and maintenance of transportation infrastructure must devote attention to accommodating safe bicycling activity. The trends show that progress is indeed being made to meet the national walking and bicycling goals, but opportunities remain to improve facilities and programs for bicyclists. Other Guidelines In addition to this bicycling guide, many state and local agencies have developed their own design or planning guidelines that address bicycling safety. Some of these exemplary guides can be found at http:/ / Another recent collection of countermeasures that are intended to improve safety conditions for bicyclists can be found in BikeSafe, the Bicycle Countermeasure Selection System, available online at The recent expansion of Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs will continue to increase demand for effective and appropriate countermeasures specifically intended for children and school-related travel. The Safe Routes to School Online Guide, available at, includes many Safe Routes-related countermeasures and examples of implementations. II-3