Click for next page ( 40

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 39
39 REFERENCES ACI Committee 302, Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Berglund, K., et al., U.S. Patent 6623657 B1, "Water Acti- Construction, ACI 302.1R-96, American Concrete Insti- vated Exothermic Chemical Deicing Formulations," Sep. tute, Farmington Hills, Mich., 1996. 2003. Advanced Asphalt Technologies, LLC, Phase II Plans with Boeing, Evaluation of Airplane Maintenance Materials, Summary of Phase I Results, Airfield Asphalt Pavement Boeing Document 487617 Revision P., Seattle, Wash., Technology Program Project 05-03: Effect of Deicing 2003. Chemicals on HMA Airfield Pavements, Interim Report, Brough, L.A., "Corrosion of Packaged Cadmium-Plated May 2, 2007. Electrical Control Units from Paint Vapors," Materials Aerodrome Standards Department, Effect of Corrosive Ma- Performance, Vol. 26, No. 8, 1987, pp. 3233. terials on Aeronautical Ground Lighting, United Kingdom Carabineiro, S.A., I.F. Silva, M. Klimkiewicz, and S. Eser, Civil Aviation Authority, Notice to Aerodrome License "In-situ Techniques for Studying Deterioration of C/C Holders, July 2004. Composite Aircraft Brakes by Catalytic Oxidation," Ma- "Airport Winter Safety and Operations," Advisory Circular terials and Corrosion, Vol. 50, No. 12, 1999, pp. 689695. No. 150/5200-30B, draft, Federal Aviation Administra- Chai, S. and W. Mason, Landing Gear Integration in Aircraft tion, Washington, D.C., n.d. Conceptual Design, Virginia Polytechnic and State Univer- "Airworthiness Directives; Boeing Model B737-600, -700, sity, Blacksburg, 1996, pp. 3536 [Online] Available: www. -700C, -800, and -900 Series Airplanes," Federal Aviation [accessed Apr. Administration, Washington, D.C., Sep. 14, 2005. 20, 2007]. Alatypp, V., Conclusions--Finnish Deicing Project, Helsinki Claverie, S. and J.P. Chaix, "Compatibility Between Cad- University of Technology, Laboratory of Highway Engi- mium and Zinc-Nickel Deposits," European Coatings, neering, Helsinki, Finland, 2005. 2007, Vol. 83, No. 6, pp. 3340. Alatypp, V. and J. Valtonen, "Experiences on the Effects of Cody, R.D., A.M. Cody, P.G. Spry, and G. Gan, "Experi- De-Icing Chemicals on Bituminous Airfield Runways in mental Deterioration of Highway Concrete by Chloride Finland," Proceedings of the 2007 FAA Worldwide Air- Deicing Salts," Environmental and Engineering Geo- port Technology Transfer Conference, Atlantic City, N.J., science, Vol. II, No. 4, Winter 1996. Apr. 1618, 2007. Comfort, G., Runway De-Icing Chemicals, Aerodrome Safety Al-Otoom, A., A. Al-Khaifa, and A. Shawaqfeh, "Crystal- Branch, Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Oct. 2000. lization Technology for Reducing Water Permeability into "Company History," Dunlop Aerospace Braking Systems, Concrete," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Re- Coventry, U.K. [Online]. Available: search, Vol. 46, No. 16, 2007, pp. 54635467. com/history_noflash.html [accessed Apr. 20, 2007]. Ambrose, M., "Icing Experts Concerned by EASA Pro- posal," Journal of the European Regions Airline Associa- Concurrent Technologies Corporation, Testing Alternative tion, July 2007, p. 9. Aircraft and Runway/Taxiway De-icers--Phase II, GSA Badawy, W.A., F.M. Al-Kharafi, and E.Y. Al-Hassan, "The Test Report CDRL AO12, Johnstown, Pa., June 2004. Electrochemical Behavior of Cadmium in Aqueous Solu- Cryotech Deicing Technology [Online]. Available: http:// tions: EIS Investigation," Materials Science Forum, 289292 (Pt. 2), 1998, pp. 849859. [accessed July 1, 2007]. Badawy, W.A. and F.M. Al-Kharafi, "A Review on the Cor- Deltombe, E., M. Pourbaix, and N. De Zoubov, Atlas of rosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Cadmium in Aqueous Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions, Solutions," Current Topics in Electrochemistry, No. 6, M. Pourbaix, Ed., Pergamon, London, 1966, 414 pp. 1998, pp. 3373. Duncan, E., Aircraft Problems from Modern Runway De- Badawy, W.A. and F.M. Al-Kharafi, "Inhibition of Corrosion icers (Fluids and Pelletized), Presented at the SAE G-12 of Cadmium in Alkaline Solutions," Bulletin of Electro- Committee, May 2006. chemistry, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2000, pp. 155160. Duncan, E., Damage from Modern Runway De-Icers (Fluid Baldwin, K.R. and C.J.E. Smith, "Advances in Replacements & Pelletized), Selected Document References, Continental for Cadmium Plating in Aerospace Applications," Trans- Airlines Engineering, Houston, Tex., June 2007. actions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, Vol. 74, No. 6, "Engineering Brief No. 70: Accelerated Alkali-Silica Re- 1996, pp. 202209. activity in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements Exposed Barett, M.L. and J.G. Pigman, "Evaluation of Automated to Runway Deicing Chemicals," Federal Aviation Admin- Bridge Deck Anti-Icing System," Research Report KTC istration, Washington, D.C., Dec. 13, 2005. 01-26/KH 36-97-1F, Dec. 2001, p. 18. Engineering Technical Letter 06-2: Alkali-Aggregate Re- Berglund, K., et al., U.S. Patent 6287480 B1, "Deicing Com- action in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Airfield Pave- positions and Methods of Use," Sep. 2001. ments, Air Force, Virginia, Feb. 9, 2006.

OCR for page 39
40 "FAA-Approved Deicing Program Updates, Winter 2006 Hinton, B.R.W. and P.N. Trathen, "The Corrosion of Cad- 2007," Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, D.C. mium Plated Steel in Aircraft Fuel Environments," Pro- [Online] Available: ceedings--Australasian Corrosion Association, 32nd examiners%5Finspectors/8000/ [accessed July 1, 2007]. Paper 32/51, 1999, 10 pp. Farha, M.H., Y. Hassan, A.O. Abd El Halim, A.G. Razaqpur, Hunter, C., Runway De-icing Fluid Cadmium Corrosion Test A. El-Desouky, and A. Mostafa, "Effects of New Deicing Results, Report AFRL/MLS 05-084, Air Force Research Alternatives on Airfield Asphalt Concrete Pavements," Pro- Laboratory--Materials Integrity Branch, WrightPatterson ceedings of the 2002 Federal Aviation Administration Tech- Air Force Base, Ohio, Aug. 2005. nology Transfer Conference, Atlantic City, N.J., May 58, Hutton, T., Dunlop's Efforts to Address Catalytic Oxidation, 2002. Presented to the SAE G-12F Catalytic Oxidation Working Fay, L., K. Volkening, C. Gallaway, and X. Shi, Perfor- Group, San Diego, Calif., May 2007. mance and Impacts of Current Deicing and Anti-Icing Jansen, R., Carbon Brake Oxidation at KLM, Presented to Products: User Perspective versus Experimental Data, the SAE G-12F Carbon Brake Oxidation Working Group, Paper 08-1382, Presented at the 87th Annual Meeting San Diego, Calif., May 2007. of Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C., Johnson, C., "I-35W and Mississippi River Bridge Anti- Jan. 1317, 2008. Icing Project: Operational Evaluation Report," Report Filip, P., Runway Deicer Assisted Catalytic Oxidation of C/C No. 2001-22, Office of Metro Maintenance Operations, Aircraft Brakes, Presented to the SAE G-12F Catalytic Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, July Oxidation Working Group, San Diego, Calif., May 2007. 2001. Flight Safety Foundation Editorial Staff, "Maintaining Visual Kato, H., Y. Tamura, and Y. Hayakawa, "Corrosion Inhibitors Aides Helps to Prevent Runway Incursions," Airport Oper- for Zinc and Cadmium. II. Inhibitive Effect of Quinoline ations, Vol. 28, No. 3, May/June 2002, pp. 17. Derivatives on Cadmium Corrosion," Denki Kagaku, Vol. Folliard, K.J., M.D.A. Thomas, and K.E. Kurtis, "Guidelines 41, No. 2, 1973, pp. 97101. for the Use of Lithium to Mitigate or Prevent ASR," Krutzsch, B., et al., U.S. Patent 5522905, "Diesel Fuel Con- FHWA Report FHWA-RD-03-047, July 2003, 86 pp. taining an Additive Which Improves the Combustion of General Accounting Office, Aviation and the Environment: Soot," June 1996. Results from a Survey of the Nation's 50 Busiest Commer- Lang, R. and J. Pabst, U.S. Patent 4318712, "Catalytic Coal cial Service Airports, GAO/RCED-00-222, Report to Rep- Gasification Process," Mar. 1982. resentative James L. Oberstar, Committee on Transporta- McCrillis, S., Goodrich Efforts to Address Catalytic Oxida- tion and Infrastructure, U.S. House of Representatives, Aug. tion, Presented to the SAE G-12F Catalytic Oxidation 2000. Working Group, San Diego, Calif., May 2007. Groupe Meban, "Socomor Aeronautic Finishing Solutions," Socomor Finishing Technologies, Vannes, France [Online]. Material Safety Data Sheet, MSDS Number 3129a, Standard Available: Reference Materials Program, National Institute of Stan- [accessed July 1, 2007]. dards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., May 11, 2006. Hnninen, T., Testing of Betaine as a Runway De-icing Agent, Maxwell, A.T.L., "Wisconsin Tests a Fixed Anti-Icing Sys- Civil Aviation Administration Seminar, Finland, Feb. 2006. tem," Public Works, July 1999, pp. 2630. Hassan, Y., A.O. Abd El Halim, and A.G. Razaqpur, Labo- "Metals as Toxins--Cadmium," Metals in Health and Disease, ratory Evaluation and Assessment of the Effect of Runway College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Deicers on the Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Concrete Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom [Online]. Available: Mixes Subjected to Freeze-Thaw Cycles, Safety and Secu- rity, Civil Aviation, Aerodrome Safety, Technical Evalu- group29/cadtox.htm [accessed May 25, 2007]. ation Engineering Division, Transport Canada, Ontario, Moles, J.O., J.L. Maier, K.L. Johnson, and S.D. Royer, U.S. ON, Canada, Mar. 2000. Patent Application No. 10/305934, "Aircraft Runway Hassan, Y., A.O. Abd El Halim, and A.G. Razaqpur, Effect of Deicing Composition," Nov. 26, 2002. Runway De-icers and Warm Temperature on the Mech- Mussato, B.T., O.K. Gepraegs, and G. Farnden, "Relative anical and Physical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt Con- Effects of Sodium Chloride and Magnesium Chloride on crete, Safety and Security, Civil Aviation, Aerodrome Reinforced Concrete--The State of Art," CD-ROM, Pro- Safety, Technical Evaluation Engineering Division, Trans- ceedings of the 84th Annual Meeting of the Transportation port Canada, Ontario, ON, Canada, Apr. 2002a. Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 913, 2005. Hassan, Y., A.O. Abd El Halim, A.G. Razaqpur, W. Bekheet, National Academy of Engineering, Assembly of Engineering and M.H. Farha, "Effects of Runway Deicers on Pavement (U.S.), and ebrary, Inc., Improving Aircraft Safety, National Materials and Mixes: Comparison with Road Salt," Journal Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 131 pp. of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 4, July/ "New Anti-icing System Planned for Interstate 35E Lexing- Aug. 2002b, p. 385. ton Bridge Spanning the Mississippi River in St. Paul," Hille, J., "De-icing and Anti-icing Fluid Residues," Boeing Press Release, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Aero Magazine, 1st quarter, 2007, pp. 1521. St. Paul, June 30, 2005.

OCR for page 39
41 Nicholas, M., SAE Cadmium Corrosion Working Group Rangaraju, P.R. and J. Olek, Potential for Acceleration of ASR Update (Round Robin Test Results), Presentation to the in the Presence of Pavement Deicing Chemicals, IPFR-01- SAE Cadmium Corrosion Working Group, San Diego, G-002-03-9, Innovative Pavement Research Foundation Calif., May 2007. Airport Concrete Pavement Technology Program, Skokie, Nilsson, F., "Durability Problems on Nordic Airfields--The Ill., Mar. 2007. Influence of Deicing Agents on Asphalt Concrete," Pro- Roosevelt, D.S., "A Bridge-Deck Anti-Icing System in Vir- ceedings of the XXIInd PIARC World Road Congress, ginia: Lessons Learned from Pilot Study," Final Report, Durban, South Africa, Oct. 1925, 2003. VTRC 04-R26, Virginia Transportation Research Coun- Nilsson, F., Runway Deicers in Sweden, Presented at the Sem- cil, Charlottesville, June 2004, 30 pp. inar on the Effects of De-Icing Chemicals on Asphalt, Ross, F., Influence of Non-Glycol Runway De-icers on Thick- Helsinki, Finland, Mar. 14, 2006. ened Fluid Dryout, Presented to the SAE G-12 Residues Pan, T., L. Fay, and X. Shi, Deicer Impacts on Pavement Working Group, San Diego, Calif., 2006. Materials: A Critical Review, Prepared for the Colorado "Runway Deicing Fluid-Electronic Materials Compatibility," Department of Transportation, Denver, Dec. 2006. U.S. Airforce Research Laboratory, Wright-Paterson Air Pan, T., X. He, and X. Shi, "Laboratory Investigation of Force Base, Ohio, July 2007. Acetate-Based Deicing/Anti-icing Agents Deteriorating SAE A-5A Manufacturers Working Group on Carbon Oxida- Airfield Asphalt Concrete," Paper # 08-13, Submitted to tion, "Oxidation Test Method for AO Treated Coupons-- the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Association of Asphalt Development Details," SAE Committee Meeting, San Paving Technologist (AAPT), Philadelphia, Pa., 2008. Diego, Calif., May 9, 2007. Penszynska-Bialczyk, K., K.B. Anderson, T. Szmanski, Sava, X., Carbon Brakes Corrosion, Presented to the SAE M. Krkoska, and P. Filip, "Thermal Analysis of Bulk G-12F Working Group, San Diego, May 1415, 2007. CarbonCarbon Composite and Friction Products Derived Seminar on the Effects of De-Icing Chemicals on Asphalt, from It During Simulated Aircraft Braking," Carbon, Helsinki, Finland, Mar. 14, 2006. Vol. 45, 2007, pp. 524530. Seo, J., U.S. Patent 7063803, "Composition for Non-Chloride Pinet, M., T. Comfort, and M. Griff, "Anti-Icing of Structures Based and Less Corrosive Type Liquid Deicer," June 2006. Using Fixed Automated Spraying Technology (FAST)," Shi, X., Table of Commercially Available Anti-icing and Ministry of Transport, Ontario, Canada, July 2005. Deicing Products, Delivered to the Colorado Department Pisano, P., "Automated Anti-Icing Systems Show Potential as of Transportation, Denver, July 2007. Solution to Slippery Streets," FHWA R&T Transporter, Simola, S., State of the Art and Latest Experiences from the Nov./Dec. 2004. Area of De-icing Fluids, Civil Aviation Administration Posselt, H.S. and W.J. Weber, Jr., "Aqueous Corrosion Chem- Seminar, Finland, Mar. 2006. istry of Cadmium," In Aqueous-Environmental Chemistry of Smith, C., Investigation of Nickel-Cadmium Diffused and Metals, A.J. Rubin, Ed., 1974, pp. 291315. Cadmium Plating Replacement Coatings, SAE Technical Pro-Act Fact Sheet: Air Force Aircraft and Airfield Deicing/ Paper 920943, 28th Annual Aerospace/Airline Plating and Anti-icing, Air Force, Virginia, May 1998, 8 pp. Metal Finishing Forum and Exposition, San Diego, Calif., Potomac Construction Industries, [Online]. Available: http:// Apr. 1992. [July 1, 2007]. "Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Hous- Rangaraju, P.R., Mitigation of ASR in Presence of Pave- ings, Junction Boxes, and Accessories," Advisory Circu- ment Deicing Chemicals, IPRF-01-G-002-04-8, Inno- lar No. 150/5345-42F, Federal Aviation Administration, vative Pavement Research Foundation Airport Concrete Washington, D.C., Oct. 17, 2006. Pavement Technology Program, Skokie, Ill., Apr. 2007. Stover, E., U.S. Patent 5759622, "Method of Inhibiting Cat- Rangaraju, P.R. and J. Desai, "Effectiveness of Selected alyzed Oxidation of CarbonCarbon Composites," June SCMs in Mitigating ASR in Presence of Potassium Acetate 1998. Deicer Solution," Presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of Stover, E., U.S. Patent 6551709 B1, "Methods of Inhibiting the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. Catalyzed Oxidation of CarbonCarbon Composites Using 2226, 2006. Phosphoric Acid, a Zinc Salt, and an Aluminum Salt and Rangaraju, P.R., K.R. Sompura, J. Olek, S. Diamond, and Articles Made Therefrom," Apr. 2003. J. Lovell, "Potential for Development of Alkali-Silica Re- Stover, E. and R. Dietz, U.S. Patent 5401440, "Inhibition of action in Presence of Airfield Deicing Chemicals," Pro- Catalyzed Oxidation of Carbon/Carbon Composites," ceedings of the 8th International Conference on Concrete Mar. 1995. Pavements, Colorado Springs, Colo., Aug. 1418, 2005. Strassler, E., Airport Deicing Effluent Guidelines Project Rangaraju, P.R., K.R. Sompura, and J. Olek, Investigation Update, Presented at the 15th Annual Aircraft and Airfield into Potential of Alkali-Acetate Based Deicers in Causing Deicing and Stormwater Conference, Alexandria, Va., Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete, Presented at the 85th Aug. 68, 2006. Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, "Synthesis of Best Practices--Road Salt Management," Trans- Washington, D.C., Jan. 2226, 2006. portation Association of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada,

OCR for page 39
42 2003 [Online]. Available: Walker, T.B., et al., "Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon/Carbon pdf/pavement.PDF [accessed Dec. 1, 2006]. Composite Friction Materials," 23rd International Confer- Tomlinson, W.J. and N. Wardle, "Electrochemical Equilibria ence on Carbon, 1997 (abstr.). of Cadmium and Water and the Dissolution of Cadmium as Walker, T.B. and L. Booker, "Inhibition of Catalytic Oxida- a Function of pH," Corrosion Science, Vol. 15, No. 10, tion in CarbonCarbon Composite Friction Materials," 1975, pp. 663665. Presented to the 1st World Conference on Carbon, Berlin, Thomson, M., "Zinc Alloys--The Boeing Alternative to Germany, 2000. Cadmium," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finish- Webb, T., Aircraft Braking Systems Corporation--Catalytic ing, Vol. 74, 1996, pp. 35. Oxidation Discussion, Presented to the SAE G-12F Car- bon Brake Oxidation Working Group, San Diego, Calif., Transport Canada, "Cancellation of Aerodrome Safety Cir- May 2007. cular 2002-015, De-icing Fluids Containing Potassium Weyandt, R. and R. Schweisfurth, "Microbiology of Hydraulic Formate, Dated 2002/04/12," Aug. 26, 2004. Fluids. Part II: Microbial Effects on Corrosion in HFA Liq- Valtonen, J., JP: The Finnish De-icing Project, Presented uids and Effects of Different Evaluation Methods," Werk- at the Seminar on the Effects of De-Icing Chemicals on stoffe und Korrosion, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1989, pp. 237242. Asphalt, Helsinki, Finland, Mar. 14, 2006. Williams, D., "Past and Current Practices of Winter Main- Van Dam, T.J., K.R. Peterson, K.D. Smith, L.L. Sutter, tenance at the Montana Department of Transportation D.G. Peshkin, and R.G. Alger, Design and Construction (MDT)," White Paper, Helena, Dec. 2003. of Concrete Pavement for Aircraft De-Icing Facilities, Wu, X., Inhibition of Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon/Carbon IPRF-01-G-002-03-3, Innovative Pavement Research Composite Materials, Ph.D. Dissertation in Materials Sci- Foundation Airport Concrete Pavement Technology Pro- ence and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, gram, Skokie, Ill., Apr. 2006. University Park, Dec. 2002. Van Dam, T.J., L.L. Sutter, K.D. Smith, M.J. Wade, and K.R. Wu, X., C.G. Pantano, and L.R. Radovic, "Inhibition of Cat- Peterson, Guidelines for Detection, Analysis, and Treat- alytic Carbon Oxidation by Boron and Phosphorus," Pro- ment of Materials-Related Distress in Concrete Pave- ceedings of the International Carbon Conference, Lexing- ments--Volume 2: Guidelines Description and Use, ton, July 15, 2001, Paper No. P2.33. [Online] Available: FHWA-RD-01-164, TurnerFairbank Highway Research Center, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Va., [accessed July 1, 2007]. Mar. 2002, 233 pp. [Online]. Available: http://www.tfhrc. Wu, X. and L. Radovic, "Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon/ gov/pavement/pccp/pubs/01164/index.htm [accessed May Carbon Composite Materials in the Presence of Potas- sium and Calcium Acetates," Carbon, Vol. 43, 2005, 1, 2007]. pp. 333344. Veeraraghavan, B., S. Prabu, B. Haran, and B. Popov, Wu, X. and L. Radovic, "Inhibition of Catalytic Oxidation "Zn-Ni-P Deposits as a Replacement for Cadmium Coat- of Carbon/Carbon Composites by Phosphorus," Carbon, ings," Proceedings--Electrochemical Society (2003), Vol. 44, 2006, pp. 141151. 2002-27 (Magnetic Materials, Processes, and Devices VII Zhirnov, A.D., S.A. Karimova, L.V. Ovsyannikova, and and Electrodeposition of Alloys), pp. 601614. O.A. Gubenkova, "New Protective Coatings for Replacing Walker, P.L., Jr., M. Shelef, and R.A. Anderson, In Chemistry Cadmium Coatings on Steel Parts," Metal Science and and Physics of Carbon, P.L. Walker, Jr., Ed., Vol. 4, Mar- Heat Treatment, Vol. 45, No. 1, 2003, pp. 2325. cel Dekker, New York, N.Y., 1968, pp. 287383. Zhirnov, A.D., S.A. Karimova, L.V. Ovsyannikova, O.A. Walker, T., Honeywell Efforts to Address Catalytic Oxida- Gubenkova, and I.V. Ul'yanov, "Zinc-Based Coatings tion, Presented to the SAE G-12 F Catalytic Oxidation Instead of Cadmium Coatings," Korroziya: Materialy, Working Group, San Diego, Calif., May 2007. Zashchita, No. 1, 2006, pp. 3840.