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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 603 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Transfer, Development, and Splice Length for Strand/Reinforcement in High-Strength Concrete

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of May 2008.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 603 Transfer, Development, and Splice Length for Strand/Reinforcement in High-Strength Concrete Julio A. Ramirez PURDUE UNIVERSITY West Lafayette, IN Bruce W. Russell OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY Stillwater, OK Subject Areas Bridges, Other Structures, Hydraulics and Hydrology Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 603 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 12-60 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11747-0 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2008907268 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2008 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 603 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs David B. Beal, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-60 PANEL Field of Design--Area of Bridges R. Scott Christie, Pennsylvania DOT (Chair) Theresa Ahlborn, Michigan Technological University Thomas Beitelman, Sound Structures Engineering, Inc., Tallahassee, FL Vijay Chandra, PB Americas, Inc., Herndon, VA Allan W. Frank, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Gregg A. Freeby, Texas DOT Bijan Khaleghi, Washington State DOT David H. Sanders, University of Nevada--Reno Joey Hartmann, FHWA Liaison Eric P. Munley, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-60 by Purdue Research Foun- dation through the School of Civil Engineering at Purdue University with subcontracting services being provided by the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Oklahoma State University (OSU). The Principal Investigator on this project was Julio A. Ramirez of Purdue University. The other author of this report was Bruce W. Russell of Oklahoma State University. The work was done under the general supervision of Julio A. Ramirez. The work at OSU was under the supervision of Bruce W. Russell.

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FOREWORD By David B. Beal Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report documents research performed to develop recommended revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to extend the applicability of the transfer, devel- opment, and splice length provisions for prestressed and non-prestressed concrete mem- bers to concrete strengths greater than 10 ksi. The report details the research performed and includes recommended revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The material in this report will be of immediate interest to bridge designers. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications contain barriers to the use of high- strength concrete. These barriers restrict the application of existing and new technology to bridges. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications state that design concrete compressive strengths above 10 ksi shall be used only when allowed by specific articles or when physical tests are made to establish the relationships between the concrete strength and other properties. When the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications were written, there was a lack of data to demonstrate that the provisions were applicable to concrete compressive strengths above 10 ksi. Recent research has started to address design issues with higher strength concretes. FHWA Showcase Projects encourage the use of high- performance concretes--including high-strength concrete--in bridge structures. As the industry moves toward the use of high-strength concrete, the need to revise the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications is more urgent. There is, therefore, a need to expand the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to allow greater use of high-strength concrete. Two recent NCHRP reports complement the work accomplished in NCHRP Project 12-60 in removing barriers to the use of high-strength concrete. NCHRP Report 579: Application of LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to High-Strength Structural Concrete: Shear Provisions iden- tifies all barriers in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to the use of high-strength concrete and provides research findings to remove the barriers related to shear. NCHRP Report 595: Application of the LRFD Bridge Design Specifications to High-Strength Structural Concrete: Flexure and Compression Provisions addresses flexural and compression issues. Recommenda- tions from these reports have already been adopted into the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The objective of NCHRP Project 12-60 was to develop recommended revisions to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for normal-weight concrete having compres- sive strengths up to 15 ksi, relating to transfer and development length of prestressing strand with diameters up to 0.62 in. and development and splice length in tension and compres- sion of individual bars, bundled bars, and welded wire reinforcement and development length of standard hooks. This research was performed by Purdue University and Oklahoma State University. The report fully documents the research leading to the recommended revi- sions to Section 5 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. AASHTO is expected to consider these recommendations for adoption in 2008.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Approach 4 1.1 Problem Statement and Research Objective 4 1.2 Research Approach 6 Chapter 2 Literature Review 6 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Literature Review 18 2.3 Identification of Issues and Needs 21 2.4 Issues Related to Testing Protocols 25 2.5 Summary 26 Chapter 3 Experimental Program and Results 26 3.1 Introduction to the Experimental Program 26 3.2 The Standard Test Method for the Bond of Prestressing Strands 31 3.3 The NASP Bond Test in Concrete 38 3.4 Measured Transfer Lengths versus Varying Concrete Strengths and Varying NASP Bond Test Values 54 3.5 Development Length Tests 72 3.6 Discussion of Design Recommendations 77 3.7 The Effect of Concrete Strength on Bond Performance-- Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations 78 3.8 Experimental Program--Mild Steel Anchorage of Uncoated Bars in Tension 89 3.9 Anchorage of Epoxy-Coated Bars in Tension 99 3.10 Anchorage of Bars Terminated with Standard Hooks in Tension 110 Chapter 4 Design Recommendations 110 4.1 Introduction 110 4.2 Design Recommendations 111 4.3 Details of the Design Recommendations 119 References 122 Appendices