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37 Table 4-1. Headway adherence and excess wait time, spring 2007 (sorted by excess wait time). Daily Scheduled Headway Excess Wait Route, Direction, Time of Day Trips On Time Early Late Headway Adherence (min.) 8-NE 15th Ave - Outbound PM Peak 14.0 45% 3% 52% 8:58 48% 3:27 4-Fessenden - Outbound - PM Peak 10.0 46% 4% 50% 12:37 49% 3:27 15-Belmont - Outbound - PM Peak 20.0 63% 2% 34% 6:14 49% 3:15 8-Jackson Park - Inbound - PM Peak 15.0 57% 1% 42% 8:19 47% 3:10 96-Tualatin/I-5 - Outbound - PM Peak 10.0 60% 0% 40% 10:57 67% 2:47 64-Marquam Hill/Tigard TC - Inbound - AM Peak 5.0 96% 0% 4% 19:50 90% 2:43 4-Division - Outbound - PM Peak 15.0 65% 6% 29% 7:58 54% 2:33 4-Division - Inbound - PM Peak 10.0 67% 4% 29% 12:43 59% 2:23 51-Vista - Inbound - AM Peak 8.4 89% 8% 2% 17:05 91% 2:11 20-Burnside/Stark - Outbound - PM Peak 7.0 66% 6% 27% 15:14 75% 2:07 17-Holgate - Outbound - PM Peak 11.0 59% 7% 33% 11:00 65% 2:07 94-Sherwood/Pacific Hwy Express - Outbound - PM Peak 14.0 73% 0% 26% 9:21 66% 2:05 72-Killingsworth/82nd Ave - Inbound - PM Peak 16.0 73% 7% 20% 7:42 50% 2:02 99-McLoughlin Express - Outbound - PM Peak 8.0 86% 0% 14% 17:09 84% 1:59 17-NW 21st Ave/St Helens Rd - Outbound - PM Peak 8.0 42% 3% 55% 15:00 75% 1:51 15-NW 23rd Ave - Outbound - Midday 31.0 53% 8% 39% 13:27 65% 1:48 4-Division - Inbound - AM Peak 15.0 89% 2% 9% 7:48 59% 1:43 32-Oatfield - Outbound - PM Peak 6.0 74% 4% 22% 24:34 88% 1:43 9-Powell - Outbound - PM Peak 14.0 62% 7% 32% 8:03 64% 1:42 12-Barbur Blvd - Outbound - Night 19.0 64% 3% 33% 20:08 81% 1:39 71-60th Ave/122nd Ave - Inbound - Midday 27.0 82% 5% 14% 16:18 76% 1:39 15-NW 23rd Ave - Outbound - PM Peak 8.0 48% 8% 44% 15:00 70% 1:38 4-Fessenden - Outbound - Night 23.0 71% 5% 24% 19:52 83% 1:34 72-Killingsworth/82nd Ave - Outbound - PM Peak 16.0 80% 5% 15% 7:43 58% 1:34 8-Jackson Park - Outbound - Midday 32.0 71% 3% 27% 13:11 80% 1:33 15-NW 23rd Ave - Outbound - AM Peak 22.0 72% 5% 24% 5:42 49% 1:33 operations managers, with the tables containing weekly per- evolved in the transit industry toward enterprise level systems, formance statistics and the graphs showing longer term pat- managed within the IT environment and coordinated with the terns and trends. In this instance, previous statistical analysis management of an enterprise database. As explained earlier in had determined that the incidence of bus bunching in the sys- this chapter, with a well-designed data model relating trans- tem was strongly related to late pullouts from garages and late portation features and attributes to ITS data tables, agencywide departures from route terminals following layovers. The trend access to archived data for GIS applications is ensured. improvements in late pullouts and departures shown in the figure suggest that the reports have served their purpose in Institutional Issues focusing the attention of garage managers and field supervisors on the attendant problems. The overall organizational structure and management phi- The transit industry's use of GIS for spatial analysis of ITS losophy have direct impacts on the ability of a transit agency data and for related mapping of service delivery and market to leverage ITS data for market research. An organization that phenomena is evolving. A 2003 survey found over 75% of re- is characterized by a lack of cross-divisional cooperation or is sponding transit agencies employing GIS in a broad range of less open to change will need stronger leadership to create an applications (Sutton 2004). Advances in the use of GIS in the environment where ITS data can be effectively integrated into transit industry parallel the emergence of the more general agency functions. Similarly, if an agency has not yet made the field, GIS for Transportation (GIS-T), that has developed shift to customer orientation using market research, the advanced applications in transportation research, planning, organizational structure will not be present to take full advan- and management (Thill 2000, Miller and Shaw 2001). tage of the benefits of ITS data. This section examines the in- According to Sutton (2004), there are three levels of GIS in- stitutional issues surrounding successful ITS implementation tegration within transit organizations, distinguished by the with respect to leveraging ITS data for market research. level of applications that must be supported: (1) specific project applications; (2) use as a departmental resource in support of Focus on the Customer established practices such as planning, scheduling, and real time bus operations; and (3) use as an enterprise system where The transit industry has seen a surge in the focus on cus- GIS is incorporated into an agency's information technology tomers, with many properties citing this as the reason behind (IT) infrastructure. Over time, the trend in GIS architecture has ridership success in recent years. TCRP Report 111, "Elements
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38 Figure 4-4. Graphical presentation of service delivery information at TriMet. Needed to Create High-Ridership Transit Systems" (Tran- properties, such as New York City (MTA-NYCTA), Chicago Systems et al. 2007) summarizes the successful marketing ef- (CTA), Washington, D.C. (WMATA), San Francisco (BART), forts pursued by transit agencies. Yet the survey conducted for and Portland (TriMet). For many properties, market research this Guidebook revealed that few agencies have market research is confined to ridership counts and customer service activity ad- programs that rigorously analyze customer needs and expecta- dressing complaints and suggestions. ITS data can leverage tions. Those with strong research programs are typically larger market research, but only when that function is fully developed.
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39 Thus, there is still a need for transit industry top manage- organization, it is likely that the agency is not simply seeking to ment to become active supporters of market research, by use the data for market research as an afterthought, but more requiring decisions to be made based on customer research, as a primary reason for implementing ITS. and by providing funding to conduct the needed research. This will require two levels of commitment: (1) funds to hire Need for Interdepartmental Coordination research firms that can provide project development, fielding, analysis, and/or report writing; and more important, (2) Transit properties typically enter the ITS arena through the knowledgeable in-house staff that understand the transit purchase of operational systems, usually an AVL system to business and specific project needs and oversee the activities support bus dispatch. Other systems, such as APCs, are fre- of the consultant. By requiring customer understanding quently purchased as an add-on to AVL. Because these sys- through market research, the transit industry can truly say it tems are conceived in operations they are often specified, is customer oriented. The agencies will be able to take maxi- purchased, and deployed without involvement from the rest mum advantage of traditional and ITS data sources and of the agency. This leads to a system that is isolated from greatly increase their success in building ridership. other uses. Data are considered only in how they are needed The case studies of CTA and TriMet (see Appendices A for the originally intended task. The result is that data may be and C) document a level of commitment to the customer saved in a format that makes them of little use for marketers, through an extensive market research program and demon- or perhaps they are not saved at all. strate how ITS data can support and enhance the market Madison Metro's success represents a counter-example of research functions. the tendency to isolate ITS planning within operations. On fixed route bus service they have recently implemented AVL, APC, and magnetic stripe card systems on their fleet of 200 Role of Senior Management vehicles. The relatively flat organizational structure allowed Senior management involvement is critical to the success of the marketing department to be on a similar level as the tran- integrating ITS with agency needs, ensuring that the resources sit department, which is in charge of operations and plan- and staff are there to support post-ITS deployment needs re- ning. Because the city and all its agencies are supported by the lated to data management and end use analysis in market Information Service Unit, GIS has been integrated into tran- research. A key issue is to ensure that individual divisional pri- sit ITS and market research data. orities do not come at the expense of other agency needs. At the CTA, staff bolstered interdivisional cooperation Operations, Marketing, IT, Finance, and other divisions need to with industry peer exchanges. They have interacted closely be included from the initial planning of the systems to ensure with TriMet and King County Metro through the U.S. that they understand the data potential and are involved in the DOT/FTA-sponsored Peer-to-Peer Development program development of the ITS and data management systems. An in- (Gross et al., 2003). This program facilitates the sharing of terdivisional team needs to be established that includes all best practices regarding transit use of ITS data and allowed potential users of the system. Senior management support is CTA to learn from efforts at other transit districts, as well as needed to ensure that the team does not ignore non-operational share their own experiences. needs in the interests of expediency or cost savings. Few, if any, transit properties in the U.S. have developed a Not only is senior management needed to ensure interdivi- service delivery analysis and monitoring capability compara- sional teamwork, it is needed to support the budget require- ble to what TriMet has achieved with its archived AVL and ments of the system. To effectively plan a system that can be APC data. These achievements are a consequence of the fore- used by all departments within the agency will require devel- thought given to the specification of the data recovery and opment of an enterprise database system, an agency activity archiving features of their AVL-APC systems, the high pene- that requires resources. Senior management's commitment is tration of APC units in the fleet, and the efforts of highly necessary to ensure that there are the resources to develop an skilled staff analysts. Also, despite their organizational sepa- enterprise database, provide the system requirements to store ration, market research and operations collaborated exten- the vast amounts of data produced by ITS, and provide the on- sively in designing customer-oriented service performance going technical staff to develop and maintain the enterprise measures for evaluating service delivery. data system. A unique cross-competency exists with Madison Metro's ITS Data Use and the Placement general manager, who was directly involved in ITS procure- of Market Research Within the Institution ment for the state. This experience allowed him to more effec- tively market ITS as a direct investment in customer service IT and Market Research are typically located in different and improved operations. With that mindset at the top of the divisions or departments within the organization. As such,