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Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 101 Terminal 4. A two-track tunnel to the new Terminal 5 is now under construction. The London Under- ground employs a one-direction loop between the central terminal area and the newer Terminal 4. Within the central terminal area, the Heathrow Bus Station is the second busiest bus station in the United Kingdom, with many transfers from bus to bus by patrons not destined to the airport. Rail. In 1998, BAA (the airport operator) began operating the high-speed Heathrow Express, which captures more than 9% of the airline passenger market. With another 14% of air- line passengers using the Underground's Piccadilly Line, rail captures almost 24% of the airline passenger market at Heathrow Airport. The Heathrow Express operates every 15 minutes on a scheduled 15-minute journey from the airport to Paddington Station in London's West End. The new service, with a top speed of 100 mph, uses rail equipment built specifically for airline passengers. The fare for the high-speed express service is about $30, slightly less expensive when purchased online and slightly more expensive when purchased on board. The Piccadilly Line opened in 1977 and averages 20 mph, including station dwell times. This service takes 40 minutes to the closest parts of downtown London, with trip times including transfers of about 1 hour to farther downtown locations. The Piccadilly Line serves many pop- ular destination areas directly, with excellent connections to the rest of the London Underground rail system. The Underground service costs about $10. Recently, the managers of the Heathrow Express, which offers non-stop service to Padding- ton Station, have added a local train that stops at several stations. These stations allow several points of transfer with the rest of the metropolitan railway and underground systems. The new service, Heathrow Connect, is provided every half hour and the fare is significantly lower than the express service. This new service is not emphasized by the operators; the trains run from a separate part of Paddington Station and are not emphasized in the station graphics. It is too early to analyze ridership results. Baggage-Handling Strategy. Beginning in June 1999, full off-site airline check-in service was provided at Paddington Station, the terminus for the Heathrow Express. At its peak, 27 check-in positions were in use. The baggage check-in service was gradually discontinued between 2001 and 2003 (for more discussion, see Chapter 5). When the baggage system was in operation, Heathrow Express managers attempted to market an in-bound baggage service from the airport to downtown hotels. It was not used to any extent. There is little space to handle baggage on board the low-ceiling Piccadilly Line trains, and Underground stations are not designed for travelers with baggage. The Heathrow Express vehi- cles have large baggage storage areas on board. Bus. A wide variety of bus services are operated from Heathrow Airport, which serves as the second largest bus station in the United Kingdom. Many buses connect with parts of the national rail service that are poorly accessed through downtown London. National Express runs nearly 400 bus services per day, including to downtown London. Market Characteristics. Ridership of the London Underground service was documented as 62% airline passengers, 11% airport employees, 15% meeters and greeters, and 12% travelers with business in the airport vicinity. Only 5% of airport employees use the Underground (34). Stockholm (34% Market Share) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 13 Stockholm-Arlanda Airport 34% 18% 16% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughfen (27 )