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122 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Why Integrate an Airport with Longer Distance Ground Services? The GAO study focuses policy attention on the possibility of greater synergy between the air system and the national ground system (rail and intercity bus). In this orientation, the concept of airport ground access services is widened to include ground access trips over longer distances. As discussed in the GAO study, the implications of this idea could be profound. For example, the managers of T.F. Green Airport, which serves Providence, Rhode Island, want to extend their geographic market area to the south toward New Haven, Connecticut, and to the north to Boston. To make this work, rail services provided by Amtrak and rail services provided by the MBTA will have to be designed to serve the needs of airline passengers. Currently, Amtrak is con- sidering an airport stop on its regional service, but not on the high-speed Acela service. MBTA commuter connections to Boston are scheduled to begin shortly. Transportation managers in Wisconsin have a strong interest in increasing the viability of General Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee and supporting the hub operations of its dominant airline, Midwest Express. Thus, making it easier for travelers from the Chicago area to select Milwaukee as their airport of departure is in the managers' interest. Currently, a shut- tle bus carries a small number of travelers a day between Mitchell airport and the Amtrak station built adjacent to the airport. Amtrak runs seven round-trip services a day between Milwaukee and Chicago. The same concept is applicable to the planning of the next generation of airport investments in the United States. For example, if the existing geographically constrained airport in San Diego, California, is to be replaced, the possibility is highly probable that a site in the nearby suburbs simply could not be found; in which case, a distant airport location implies some kind of inte- gration with high-speed ground services to gain access to that new airport location. There are several European precedents for the integration of longer distance ground access services to airports with airline ticketing and baggage systems. The following sections discuss case studies of strategies specifically designed to replace short-distance flight segments in Germany and France and a case study of more traditional improvements to longer distance access chal- lenges in Switzerland. Substitution of Air Flights in Germany and France Frankfurt Airport is developing an ambitious program to replace short-distance airline feeder services with improved rail connections. Because only a limited number of slots are available for use at the Frankfurt airport, airport officials believe that the overall productivity of the airport can be increased by reallocating these short-distance feeder slots to longer distance flights. This reallocation has resulted in the development of highly specialized joint air/rail-integrated ser- vices between Frankfurt and Stuttgart to the south and Cologne to the north. German Railways and Lufthansa Airlines are committed to replace certain domestic airline flights with high-quality integrated rail connections. In July 1998, German Railways and Lufthansa Airlines signed a Memorandum of Understanding that states that the airline would terminate feeder flights to Frankfurt from Dsseldorf, Cologne, and Stuttgart, but only if cer- tain standards of seamless operation have been attained. The basic attribute agreed upon is that actual travel times by rail would be no longer than the present times by feeder aircraft. The memorandum calls for "full check-in from the train station of departure through to the destination airport, and uninterrupted baggage transfer from the train station of departure to the destination airport." Figure 5-10 shows the baggage claim area in the Cologne rail station complex. In a highly similar market strategy, Air France has ceased its flights between Brussels and Paris, because the highly successful high-speed rail (TGV) trains have erased the market for these

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Integrated Baggage and Ticketing Strategies 123 PHOTO: M. A. Coogan. Figure 5-10. This off-site terminal in Cologne is one of only two locations in the world to offer full airline baggage claim service and inbound customs clearance. flights. In their place, Air France sells tickets from the Brussels high-speed rail station to the trav- eler's final airport destination, substituting a fast train to Charles de Gaulle Airport in place of the deleted BrusselsParis flight segment. Baggage check-in is allowed until 20 minutes prior to the train departure time. Bags are handed over to the airline in Brussels but are then reclaimed on the rail platform at the airport; the traveler must then re-check them at Charles de Gaulle Air- port. (Perhaps importantly, an attempt to provide the reverse of this service, encouraging French travelers to access international flights through direct rail service to Brussels Airport, was not a success.) What Is Happening in Cologne and Stuttgart? The Lufthansa terminals in both the Cologne and Stuttgart train stations have been given full-fledged IATA three-letter codes: tick- ets are sold to and from these terminals, and baggage is both checked in and delivered to these terminals. A single air + rail ticket is sold, in which the rail segment appears in the booking/reser- vation systems as a "flight." The actual number of travelers who choose to take the train to access Frankfurt Airport from Cologne is reported to be quite high. However, the portion of those who select a joint air + rail ticket is quite low, as most travelers choose to buy a rail ticket separately form the air ticket. Sim- ilarly, the number of travelers who choose to part with their bags at either Cologne or Stuttgart stations is quite low (Figure 5-11). Some analysts believe the baggage service will be phased out. The managers of the combined systems must contend with the fact that no one airline has a monopoly for the many origindestination pairs. By way of example, Air France ended all flights between Brussels and Paris, and offered high-quality rail trips between Brussels and Charles de Gaulle Airport for a trip from, say, Brussels to New York. However, the free market offers alter- natives; the traveler can purchase a ticket from Brussels to New York via Frankfurt or London without having to experience the rail segment.

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124 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation PHOTO: M. A. Coogan. Figure 5-11. While ridership between the Cologne rail station and Frankfurt Airport is strong, only a small portion of air travelers utilize the new check-in facility. Thus, when Lufthansa removes flights from Cologne to Frankfurt from its system, it weakens its competitiveness with competitors' flights from Cologne to New York via Paris, Amsterdam, and London --none of which force the air traveler onto a rail trip segment. Managers of the joint air-rail program have noted that travelers may choose the integrated air + rail ticket the first time they make the trip. Then, once they are familiar with the combinations of modes, travelers on the in-bound trip buy separate air and rail tickets, retrieve their bag at the airport, and proceed on the next departing train with the bag in hand to Cologne, to Stuttgart, or wherever. In this manner, travelers avoid connection times that are either too long (e.g., needing to wait for the pre-purchased connecting train and watching earlier trains depart) or too short (e.g., making the train connection, but the bag does not). Integration of Air and Rail Services in Switzerland The integration of air and rail systems in Switzerland is fundamentally different from the through-ticketing concepts in the Cologne, Stuttgart, and Brussels case studies in the preceding section. Through tickets are not included in this system; airline tickets are sold by airlines, and rail tickets are sold by rail companies. While the Swiss Railway runs a direct train from Zurich Airport to Bern, the nation's capital, a joint ticket is neither offered with any airline nor described on the reservations system. It is estimated that 33% of Zurich Airport air travelers who use the rail system come from the city of Zurich and another 8% come from the rest of the metropolitan area. Thus, some 59% are coming from outside the metropolitan area. For Geneva, only about 25% of the air travelers using the rail system come from the city of Geneva, and 75% come from the rest of Switzerland and from France. Zurich Airport is served by more than 170 trains per day, and the Geneva