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126 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation include some, but not all, integrated features are being developed. In some cases, a key role is played by third-party baggage handlers. In other cases, air and rail services are ticketed together, but with no integration of baggage. Part 3 of Chapter 5 looks at some of the recent developments in strategies that implement some, but not all, of the elements of integration between air and ground systems. Much of the most relevant work in the recent development of integrated systems has occurred in Las Vegas, Nevada, and is summarized in the following section. In addition, two good exam- ples of attempts to bring separate modal services together for the benefit of the traveler are pro- filed. The first example is the program developed by the Los Angeles World Airports to provide a dedicated bus service designed for the needs of airline passengers traveling to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles, where the onward journey can continue on a wide range of longer distance transportation services. The second example is the program to integrate air and rail services through the Newark Liberty International Airport rail station. Las Vegas Strategies for Integration of Modal Services As noted in the previous section of this chapter, the largest (geographically) baggage-handling ground access system in the world is operated in Switzerland entirely by a third party, not the airlines and not the airport. The Swiss Fly Rail Baggage system provides good precedent for the idea that getting baggage to the airport can be accomplished by a private company and still effi- ciently integrated with the rest of the aviation system. This concept was initially being adapted for U.S. application by a highly innovative set of entrepreneurs in Las Vegas, who created the company called Certified Airline Passenger Service (CAPS), a privately owned company created by major Las Vegas resorts and a local baggage-handling company. The Evolution of Third-Party Baggage Handling Before September 11, 2001, passengers departing McCarran International Airport on one of 10 airlines could check-in their baggage and receive boarding passes and seat assignments at counters located at more than 12 Las Vegas area resort/casinos. These baggage check-in coun- ters were operated by CAPS. Baggage check-in services were only available for enplaning Las Vegas passengers; no equivalent baggage service was available from the originating airport to the hotels for deplaning Las Vegas passengers. Airline passengers using CAPS were required to check their baggage 2 to 12 hours prior to their scheduled flight departure time and pay a $6 per passenger service fee. Baggage was transported by truck from the individual hotels directly to McCarran International Airport. The international passengers including that of Virgin Atlantic were required to have their baggage re-screened and inspected at the airport. CAPS was permitted to provide off-airport baggage check-in services for scheduled and charter airlines under "Off Airport Baggage Acceptance Amendments" enacted by the FAA for McCarran International Airport. Under the terms of this amendment, CAPS per- sonnel were subject to the same background checks and training as airline personnel, and their baggage-handing facilities were subject to FAA personnel inspection to ensure compliance with security regulations. CAPS was growing in popularity and was being expanded to serve additional hotels and air- lines before September 11, 2001. This success could be attributed to several factors; some of which were unique to Las Vegas. For example, as in many communities, hotel guests are required to check out by noon. But unlike most cities, many Las Vegas visitors, who prefer to remain at the casinos and enjoy the resorts as long as possible, depart Las Vegas on evening flights. Thus, many Las Vegas airline passengers prefer to check their bags several hours before their flight and were accustomed to paying for this service. This situation is not true in most other cities that