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128 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Table 5-2. Locations for remote baggage check-in for JetBlue Airways, through Bags Inc. Boston, MA (BOS) Orlando, FL (MCO) Boston Convention & Exhibition Center Disney's All-Star Movies Resort Hynes Convention Center Disney's All-Star Music Resort Port of Boston (Seasonal) Disney's All-Star Sports Resort Disney's Animal Kingdom Lodge Chicago, IL (ORD) Disney's Beach Club Resort & Villas McCormick Place Convention Center Disney's Boardwalk Inn Disney's Caribbean Beach Resort Fort Lauderdale, FL (FLL) Disney's Contemporary Resort Port Everglades Disney's Coronado Springs Resort Port of Miami Disney's Fort Wilderness Resort & Campground Disney's Old Key West Resort Phoenix, AZ (PHX) Disney's Polynesian Resort Westin Kierland Resort Disney's Pop Century Resort Disney's Port Orleans Resort - French Quarter San Diego, CA (SAN) Disney's Port Orleans Resort - Riverside San Diego Convention Center Disney's Saratoga Springs Resort & Spa Port of San Diego (Seasonal) Disney's Wilderness Lodge & Villas Disney's Yacht Club Resort San Francisco, CA (SFO) Disney's Grand Floridian Resort & Spa SFO Long-Term Parking Garage Marriott Downtown Orlando SFO Rental Car Facility Orange County Convention Center The Moscone Convention Center Rosen Centre Hotel Port of San Francisco Rosen Plaza Hotel San Juan, PR (SJU) Rosen Shingle Creek Port of San Juan Shades of Green Hotel Hyatt Orlando Airport Seattle, WA (SEA) Port Canaveral Port of Seattle (Seasonal) Tampa, FL (TPA) Port of Tampa SOURCE: JetBlue website. Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station: A Case Study As noted in the GAO study, there is only one example in the United States of an airport termi- nal area that is physically linked with the national rail system, either directly or by people mover. Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station stands as the best U.S. test case for the integra- tion of long-distance ground service (Amtrak) with long-distance air service (the airlines). In terms of physical services, the AirTrain people mover connects the Amtrak/New Jersey Tran- sit Rail Station every 5 minutes (or better) to all three of Newark Liberty International Airport's main airline terminal buildings. The architectural integration at the air terminals is effective, as the people mover is actually on the airside of the terminal building, rather than on the other side of the airport access road, as is the case in Chicago. A simple one-story escalator connects the peo- ple mover platforms to the departure level of the air terminal. The entire system operates outside of the secure area of the terminal (i.e., before going through security check points). The construction of the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station was the result of a long cooperative process undertaken primarily between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (who paid for it) and New Jersey Transit (who built it). Integration of Air + Rail Ticketing Throughout the implementation process, the plans were developed by New Jersey Transit, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Amtrak, and Continental Airlines. The result was
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Integrated Baggage and Ticketing Strategies 129 the most concentrated attempt yet undertaken to integrate air and ground services. Continental entered into an agreement with Amtrak to code share certain rail services to Stamford and New Haven, Connecticut; Philadelphia; and Wilmington, Delaware. Therefore, Continental is able to sell a single, unified ticket from, for example, Stamford to Paris (Figure 5-12). (In fact, Conti- nental also operates code share rail services with the French National Railway, allowing a trip from the Stamford rail station to Newark airport to Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris and on to Marseilles by train.) From the beginning, the new combination of people mover to regional rail has been a success. The Newark rail station serves about 5% of all airport ground access trips and captures about 12% of the market from Manhattan. All of this growth occurs within a pattern of greater reliance on public transportation services, which grew from 6% of the total market in 1997 to 14% in 2005. Simply stated, these figures show that the growth in rail share was not simply cannibalized from competing bus services. Currently, public transportation modes from Newark airport cap- ture more than 25% of the trips from Manhattan. Ticket integration between rail and airport services was accomplished on the local scale also. The purchase of one ticket from an origin on the New Jersey Transit system (e.g., Penn Station New York) to a destination at an airport air terminal includes both the fare for the New Jersey Transit train and the Port Authority's AirTrain. (There are some exceptions, such as the use of monthly tickets by New Jersey Transit riders.) A single one-way integrated ticket from Manhattan to the air terminals now costs about $14, of which $5.50 represents the fare for the AirTrain people mover on the airport. As of 2007, the station is attracting about 4,300 passengers per day, resulting in a yearly average of well over 1.5 million passengers per year (43). The station as a whole shows sub- stantial market growth; total ridership is up more than 40% from its first year of operation. Even though the traveler has purchased a unified fare, fare status must be validated at the ticket gate located between the rail platforms and the AirTrain station. Thus, a New Jersey Transit ticket once punched by a conductor on board has to be submitted again to the fare collection machines. Similarly, the paper ticket used on the Amtrak segment must be shown to the gate manager. The area is staffed 24 hours a day with airport personnel who help with the intricacies of the fare col- lection process. SOURCE: Continental Airlines website. Figure 5-12. An example of integrated air/rail ticketing in the United States.
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130 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation What Happened at the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station? The goal of seamless integration between the national aviation system and the national rail system is as yet unrealized. As of 2005, about 370 daily Amtrak riders boarded or alighted at the station, while in 2006 about 350 daily riders used the station. Clearly, the through-ticketing service between Amtrak and Continental Airlines is a pioneer- ing first step in offering the public the option of optimizing both air and ground services in a sin- gle purchase decision. What is less clear is the extent to which the product has been aggressively marketed and promoted. However, the results of the Newark through-ticketing experiment are very much consistent with the larger pattern revealed in this chapter in which the consumer is selecting the simplest and least interconnected product options. The market pattern revealed in the Newark integration example is similar to the market pattern revealed in either the Cologne or the Stuttgart example. Documenting the Collaboration at Newark The experience of the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station can be used as a study in lessons learned in the implementation of intermodal concepts. In November 2004, the I-95 Corridor Coalition published the results of an intensive study of the intermodal coordination associated with the rail station project. At the request of the four participating organizations-- the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New Jersey Transit, Amtrak, and Continental Airlines--a team of experts from the Coalition examined all aspects of the interagency project to create and manage the services at the Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station. The team was given access to all levels of the operation, including a series of interviews with the team of passenger service representatives employed in the station. Through a focus group format, everyone associated with the project was invited to give their candid assessment about the strengths and weakness of the integrated project. Some of the conclusions follow: · Agency collaboration has the great value of acknowledging the independence and perspective of each partner in the collaboration; however, it does not have a clear locus of power to make--and to complete--the implementation of complex decisions. · The two key challenges to the integration of services provided by separate institutions are (1) the integration of information, to describe the full multisegment trip, and (2) the integration of fare collection media to pay for the full multisegment trip. · The project components most susceptible to problems in multiyear implementation are passenger information systems. · Customer service, operations, and technical staff from all the operating agencies need to pro- vide input into the design process. · The customer perspective must truly be understood by all and a commitment must be made to do what is best for the customer, regardless of historical leanings and potentially conflict- ing policies. The study report observes that the demands of an intermodal transfer station are unique; the passenger is different and has different expectations and needs. Therefore, the rail services them- selves must be designed for the unique role; the space and amenities needed in a rail station and in the rail car are different for a long-distance traveler with luggage. Most important, the report documents the extensive coordination activities undertaken during the capital planning and construction process, and observes that such an intermodal mandate needs to be continued into the operational phase; once the service is running, the continued attention to service quality has to rise above single-agency budgets and priorities.