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Integrated Baggage and Ticketing Strategies 131 Making the Collaboration Work. In the collaborative model of implementation adopted in Newark, there is no one single lead agency that can mandate the others to follow its recommendations; everything must be negotiated. This model causes each agency represen- tative to, in effect, play two separate roles: the advocate for and defender of the agency's legit- imate self-interest, and the advocate of the best end-state for the customer. Rick Mariani of New Jersey Transit told a member of the research team, "each designee has to have an expan- sive view of the world beyond the organization's boundaries. That view must be customer centered, that the outcome must be best for the customer." The study report concludes: "For many in the rail agencies, the project was `just another station.' A major lesson to be learned from this experience is that this is not true: it is not just another station . . . It is a facility in which a higher level of service is matched with a significantly higher fare. It has been argued elsewhere that the future of the public transportation will hinge on the ability to create separate market products for separate market groups, something the publicly subsidized industry has been understandably reticent to do. Indeed, a recent study sponsored by the Transportation Research Board concluded that there is no `market' for airport ground access services; there are a series of unique market segments." (44) Lessons Learned: Integration with National Systems In the previous examples, whether the integration is with high-speed technology (France and Germany) or slower intercity rail service (Switzerland), the airport strategy takes advantage of a capital investment decision already made for the rest of the national network. The scale of the national rail networks into which the airports have been integrated must be emphasized, because the lack of such rail networks in the United States will make similar strategies infeasible at most U.S. airports. The travel times from the four high-speed lines serving the new Frankfurt Airport InterCity Express station will provide service that is actually competitive with the short-distance air trips that airport officials are trying to discourage. A 1-hour travel time from Frankfurt Airport to downtown Cologne is directly competitive with, and probably better than, the same trip by commuter aircraft. The traveler in western parts of Belgium may be induced to make an international trip through Charles de Gaulle Airport rather than through the Brussels Airport, because of the rail travel times created by the TGV. Designers of U.S. strategies to integrate major airports with Amtrak services will need to understand the difference in quality of services offered to the traveling public. Within the North- east Corridor of the Amtrak system, it is clear that intercity rail can play a role in bringing people to major airports well connected to that system. Outside of that corridor, the parallels with the international experience are weak at best. What is clear from these examples is that the long-distance traveler is not looking for soup- to-nuts provision of integrated services. Most longer distance travelers are showing a pattern in which they want to control as many decisions about their modal options as possible. For the small subset of the market who do want to part with their bags (for whatever reason), third-party baggage managers may emerge as a significant market option. Given that good public transportation options do exist to get travelers to airports--whether from near origins or from longer distance origins, a key challenge is to make the traveler aware of those services. Once that knowledge is widely available, the traveler may wish to retain con- trol of each segment decision, rather than surrendering that control to any service. Chapter 9 will review a series of new breakthroughs in the task of getting information about those options to the traveler at the time of trip planning.