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Applying Market Research to Airport Ground Access 147 No successful examples of traditional multistop bus services were found in this study. Public multistop bus services in New York and Portland, Oregon, have mode shares of 3% to 5% in their respective primary markets. Trip-end densities associated with public multistop bus ser- vices had a very wide range, from slightly more than 20 trip ends per square mile to more than 600 trip ends per square mile, indicating that there are other factors affecting the performance of this service. Scheduled bus services operating from downtown locations and running express to the airport have considerably higher mode shares in their respective primary markets. The examples included express service from downtown Seattle to the airport with a 15% share of the market and express service from Manhattan to JFK airport with a 7% mode share. Very high densities of 475 to 600 trip ends per square mile found in narrowly defined urban downtowns support these services. Shared Door-to-Door Services Observations about market characteristics supportive of shared door-to-door services are lim- ited because of the manner in which available survey information is recorded. From examples in this study, shared door-to-door services operate in a variety of markets, in which densities range from 15 to more than 300 trip ends per square mile. Mode shares in primary markets for these services range from 5% to 21%; however, the examples do not necessarily represent individual services, making the fundamental market requirements difficult to understand for this category of public ground transportation. The physical size of the primary markets identified for shared door-to-door services also has a very wide range, from 50 to 500 square miles in area. Express Bus Service from a Regional Collection Point Express bus transportation operating from remote suburban terminals serving San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Boston airports are examples of successful public ground transportation ser- vices. This category of public transportation is the only example found in the current research providing some measure of service to geographic areas outside of primary airport ground trans- portation markets in which trip-end densities are very low (less than five per square mile). All of the services operate from locations that are at least 10 miles from the airports they serve and are located at a major regional collection point where the roadway network funnels automobile access trips destined for the airport. Available market information for express bus services indicates that the average density in the primary markets for individual services ranges from four to eight trip ends per square mile. The physical size of market areas for these services range from approximately 250 to 500 square miles. Mode shares of 17% to 31% in primary markets are the highest found among the three types of public ground transportation to airports. A Hierarchy of Markets for Public Ground Transportation Services Research has shown that each type of ground transportation service is associated or supported by a roughly defined range of air traveler activity. Using data from air traveler surveys, Table 6-6 lists the size of the primary market associated with the mode and the number of annualized air travelers generated from the primary market area. Express bus service, either from downtown or a regional collection point, requires a market of roughly 1.2 million to 1.6 million annual air travelers. Shared door-to-door modes serve geo- graphic areas generating 2.0 to 4.9 annual air travelers and rail service is found in areas with 6.6 million to 8.2 million annual air travelers. These results provide a general indication of the air traveler activity supportive of public ground transportation services at large airports and point