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152 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation market area), rail market share for residents is revealed to be far stronger than for non-residents. In fact, between the CBD and O'Hare, the market segment with the highest share to rail is the resident business market. It can be argued that travelers who are most familiar with the very reli- able service from the downtown to the airport are the most prone to select it. The non-resident business market, faced with the same travel times and costs, has a much lower share to rail. Market segmentation of this kind has been applied to better understand concept of "famil- iarity" in the choice of airport access mode. In Scandinavia, data collected on all four market segments is further divided into domestic vs. international flights. In Sweden, it was found that, looking only at the non-resident business market, visitors to the city of Stockholm from within Sweden chose the fast rail at a market share (60%) almost three times that of the visitors from outside Sweden (21%) (47). Looking for this issue of familiarity for the Oslo fast train, the ana- lysts found that, looking only at the non-resident business market, visitors from within Norway had a much higher mode share to rail (69%) than did visitors from outside of Norway (51%.) For the managers of the rail system, this market research then focused the management issue on the challenge of getting their marketing message out to international visitors not familiar with the system. This kind of market research can be undertaken only when other powerful factors, such as the geography of the trip end and the demographics of the trip maker, are properly taken into consideration. In both these research examples, each of the two groups approached the same geographic area, with the same trip purpose, and exhibited radically different market behavior. Conclusion Market segmentation by geographic area, and by demographic characteristics, is a powerful tool that allows the analyst to understand market conditions on a more disaggregate basis. It allows the comparison of "apples to apples," which in turn can reveal pronounced differences in market behavior by parallel market groups in different cities, and on different continents. It allows many variables to be held constant, while highlighting legitimate differences between target groups. Most important, the application of the two levels of market segmentation allows the trans- portation manager to carefully design services that will attract more people into efficient, higher occupancy modes for airport ground access.