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154 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Airport Ground Transportation Management Strategies Most airport managers require all operators of commercial ground transportation services doing business at the airport to enter into a formal business relationship with the airport author- ity or operating agency. (In most communities, any vehicle is allowed to drop off passengers at the airport, but only authorized or permitted vehicles are allowed to pick up passengers.) Typically, commercial vehicle operators are required to obtain an airport permit in order to do business at the airport. By obtaining and signing the airport permit, the commercial vehicle operator indicates its willingness to abide by the rules and regulations established by airport management, and pay certain specified fees. Airport rules typically regulate (1) the use of airport roadways and other facilities; (2) the age, condition, and minimum insurance coverage for the vehicles used to transport passengers; and (3) the behavior and appearance of the drivers or representatives of the commercial vehicle operators. Airport Fees Airport fees are typically imposed to recover airport management's costs of administering the permits and providing and maintaining the airport facilities used by the commercial vehicle operators. Commercial vehicle fees can also be established to achieve other goals: Encourage the use of public transportation by reducing or not charging fees. For example, most airport managers do not charge any fees to scheduled public bus and rail services pick- ing up airline passengers and airport employees. Support public transportation by using fees to contribute to the cost of constructing facilities serving public transportation operators that are located on airport and used exclusively to transport airline passengers and airport employees. Achieve air quality goals by encouraging the use of vehicles using alternative fuels or hybrid vehicles, or by requiring the consolidated courtesy vehicle services. Promote efficient operations by restricting the number of trips made by individual operators or promoting consolidated operations by courtesy vehicles. Encourage the efficient use of airport facilities by limiting curbside dwell times or the number of circuits made around airport roadways. Measures to Encourage Use of Public Transportation Airport managers can encourage the use of public transportation by (1) providing a separate roadway for commercial ground transportation (e.g., commercial lanes or drives), (2) prioritiz- ing or reserving other portions of the terminal buildings, and/or (3) developing transit hubs on the airport. These measures are described in the following paragraphs. Commercial Lanes A number of airports reserve separate roadways or commercial lanes, along with the adjacent curbside areas, for commercial vehicles. Access to these commercial roadways may be gate con- trolled, so that only authorized vehicles can enter and pick up passengers. Drivers of authorized vehicles must have proximity cards or radio frequency identification system transponders (e.g., automated vehicle identification system tags) to activate the gates or signify that they are permitted to access the passenger pick-up areas. Prioritized Facilities Providing staffed counters in baggage claim areas and passenger waiting areas or shelters can enhance the level of service for public transportation customers. The operations of public

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Managing the Airport Landside System 155 transportation services can be improved by providing direct connections between airport roadways and HOV lanes or by reserving space to serve the needs of the transit providers. Transportation Counters in Baggage Claim Areas. Access to transportation or ticket coun- ters, typically found in the baggage claim area, can benefit potential customers and ground trans- portation providers. Counters can help passengers (1) identify available public transportation services; (2) readily determine the optimum route, schedule, and fares; and (3) purchase a ticket before boarding the vehicle. Operators have found that staffed counters in the terminal can assist in increasing their market recognition, round-trip ticket sales, and volume of walk-up business. Several airport operators limit the ground transportation providers that are allowed to staff counters in the baggage claim area, generally preferring those who have concession contracts or operate scheduled services. Passenger Waiting Areas. To improve customer service, several airport managers provide heated/air-conditioned waiting areas with seating and other customer amenities located adja- cent to the transportation counters or the curbside pick-up areas. Several airports provide ground transportation centers (GTCs) or intermodal centers, which provide waiting and seat- ing areas at a remote location. GTCs are described in more detail later in this chapter. HOV Lane Access. Public transportation operations, particularly travel speeds and travel time reliability, are enhanced by the availability of HOV or bus-only lanes linking the airport with the city center or other major destinations. In some communities, all commercial passen- ger vehicles are allowed to use the HOV lane, including deadheading taxis and limousines. In others, the roadways are reserved for bus use only. For example, scheduled airport buses serving Pittsburgh International Airport use the West Busway, a 5-mile-long exclusive roadway that links downtown Pittsburgh with the Borough of Carnegie. As of May 2001, about half of the 2,400 bus riders using the Busway were traveling to and from Pittsburgh International Airport. In Connecticut, HOV lanes on I-91 allow commercial ground transportation vehicles accessing Bradley International Airport (Windsor Locks, Connecticut) to bypass highway congestion. Transit Hubs and Layover Points At some airports, the airport curbside operates as a transit hub; public bus schedules are designed so that bus riders can transfer to other routes stopping at the airport. Such schedules improve public transit access to the airport, but the large number of non-airline passengers may add congestion at the terminal building curbside area. Often bus routes terminating at an airport are scheduled to provide layover time (or recovery time) so that drivers can take their scheduled break inside the terminal, while the unattended bus remains parked at the curbside. Airport man- agers can help enhance transit operations and service by working with public transit operators to allocate the required space at a mutually convenient location, while recognizing the trade-offs between encouraging the use of public transportation and promoting the efficient use of curb space. Currently, activities occurring within 300 feet of the air terminal are limited for security reasons; such a transit center would logically be located further from the terminal building. Customer Service Enhancements A ground transportation center or intermodal center is similar to a bus terminal or rail station located near an airport terminal facility. Customer services provided at a GTC may include cov- ered boarding areas for buses and vans; heated and air-conditioned waiting areas; restrooms; ground transportation ticket sales/information counters; kiosks or stands selling magazines, food, beverage, and other passenger amenities; and access to rental car areas. Prior to the homeland secu- rity changes implemented after September 11, 2001, some GTCs offered airline ticketing/baggage check-in areas and baggage claim facilities. In 2007, airport operators used third-party baggage- handling companies to provide remote baggage check-in services, as discussed in Chapter 5.