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OCR for page 159
Managing the Airport Landside System 159 The concessionaire is responsible for meeting these requirements while also ensuring that the driv- ers are assigned an appropriate number of trips and receive an opportunity to earn a fair salary. In absence of a concession agreement, airport managers have only a few other options to balance supply and demand: Limiting the number of vehicles serving the airport each day--For example, managers can implement odd-even license plate programs that allow only half of the authorized taxis to serve the airport on a given day. Closing the entrance to the hold lot--This action effectively closes the airport to commercial vehicle operators and prevents additional vehicles (e.g., taxis) from entering the airport. Increasing the minimum standards--By establishing higher standards for ground transporta- tion providers (e.g., minimum fleet size or insurance requirements), vehicles (e.g., maximum age of vehicles), or driver qualifications, airport management can discourage less qualified com- panies from serving the airport. With a concession agreement, airport management typically grants the concessionaire certain privileges, including access to preferential curb space and to ticket/information counters in the terminal building, and the exclusive right to provide service to certain geographic areas (e.g., downtown). For sufficiently lucrative services, the airport may be able to require the con- cessionaire to support services that are less lucrative or not self-supporting. For example, airport management can require the concessionaire awarded a shared-ride van or taxi contract to also operate or provide a scheduled bus service to downtown or other destination. Such arrange- ments are particularly feasible in communities where a major corporation owns both a major taxi service and provides scheduled airport bus service or, alternatively, in communities that have established goals for disadvantaged business participation in airport services. Third-Party Management Contracts Airport management may also contract with a third party to manage and enforce ground trans- portation operations at the airport. For example, at San Francisco International Airport, a third- party contractor is responsible for dispatching taxis, and controlling and monitoring charter buses and limousine operations. At Portland (Oregon) International Airport, a third-party contractor is responsible for providing information, directing passengers to ground transportation services, dispatching taxis, and monitoring operations along the commercial roadways. While management of both airports retains the responsibility for establishing policies, fees, and regulations, the third- party contractor can significantly influence the level of service provided to the traveling public. Regulatory Considerations for the Introduction of New Services Airport managers must consider numerous regulatory, institutional, and market factors when introducing new airport ground transportation services. Some of the issues and challenges related to regulating and promoting public transportation services are described in the following sections. Challenges of Introducing New Services In most communities, it is necessary to obtain state authority to introduce a new door-to- door, shared-ride, or scheduled transportation service. Typically, the operator of the new ground transportation service must meet the following requirements: Describe where and how it will serve the public, including the proposed fares or tariffs Demonstrate sufficient demand for the service