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Managing the Airport Landside System 161 Taxis versus shared-ride vans--The operators of shared-ride vans perceive that they are com- peting with taxis for on-demand customers. If taxi operators are permitted to drop off and pick up customers at the terminals, the operators of shared-ride van services would likely demand the right to provide equivalent services, especially if the operators perceive that cus- tomers value access to the terminal building over access to the GTC. Again, as with the taxi operators, the decision would likely involve others besides airport management. Shared-ride vans versus scheduled vans/buses--The operators of scheduled vans and buses, particularly at downtown locations, perceive that they compete with the operators of shared- ride van services. The scheduled van operators will likely resist picking up passengers at a loca- tion that they perceive provides an advantage to their competitors. Courtesy vehicles--Local rental cars, hotel/motels, and other operators of courtesy vehicles would also likely demand that they be permitted to drop off and pick up customers at the terminal buildings rather than at a GTC. As a result of the enforcement challenges and competitive factors described above, some air- port managers have determined that the only users of the GTC would be public transit services and scheduled buses and vans. All other transportation services were directed to pick up and drop off passengers at the terminal building. While such allocation decisions may enable airports to offer a range of ground transportation services, this approach could discourage the use of pub- lic transportation by airline passengers or employees, particularly if baggage check-in or baggage claim services are not available at the GTC. Factors Governing Airport Financial Operations Airport authorities exist in a variety of forms, and their specific powers and responsibilities are established by their enabling legislation. Some airport authorities are independent public bodies created by state legislation; others are municipal corporations or agencies created by one or more local jurisdictions under general state statutes governing the establishment of inde- pendent authorities. Many airport authorities sponsored by state or local legislation operate relatively independently of their governmental sponsors, while remaining responsive to politi- cal concerns and priorities. In other cases, the sponsoring jurisdiction retains some oversight of airport operation, such as approval of operating budgets and bond issues. This section provides an overview of the key legal, financial, institutional, and jurisdictional factors affecting public transportation to airports. As illustrated in Figure 7-1, typical factors include (1) federal regulations and policies and grant assurances made by airport sponsors, (2) the airport operator's authorizing legislation, (3) the bond indenture for the airport, and (4) the airport's airline use-and-lease agreements. The airport's concession agreement(s) also affect the airport operator's net revenue and financial capacity. Authorizing Legislation Airport operators that are independent entities or enterprise funds of a city, county, or state government typically are governed by authorizing legislation or a local charter that establishes the airport operator's organizational structure, responsibilities, and powers. The authorizing legislation may specify facilities, such as airport access roads, that the airport operator is respon- sible for developing, maintaining, or both. Bond Indenture The bond indenture--also called a bond resolution or bond ordinance--provides the legal basis for issuing airport revenue bonds and defines the terms under which additional bonds