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Improving Public Transportation Mode Share for Employees 169 Table 8-1. Number of employees at selected airports. Estimated 1998 average Airport Size (a) daily employees New York JFK L 41,000 (1987) Dallas/Fort Worth L 40,000 (2000) Chicago O'Hare L 40,000 Los Angeles L 40,000 San Francisco L 31,000 Phoenix L 23,665 St. Louis L 19,000 Denver L 17,400 Boston L 14,600 (2000) Houston L 14,406 Salt Lake City L 13,026 Seattle L 11,375 Oakland M 10,500 Tampa L 8,219 Las Vegas L 8,000 (2000) Portland (Oregon) M 5,000 San Jose M 3,500 San Diego L 3,000 Omaha M 2,500 (2000) Sacramento M 1,500 (2000) Orange County John Wayne M 1,000 (2000) (a) FAA hub size: L = Large, M = Medium, S = Small SOURCE: TCRP Report 83, Jacobs Consultancy, based upon data provided by individual airport operators. Data was provided for 1998, unless otherwise noted. have schedules dictated by aircraft operational patterns that are outside of the typical peak-period commuting hours of 6 a.m. to 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. to 7 p.m. The availability and cost of parking for employees. How much do employees pay for park- ing? While some airports are providing subsidized car pools or transit passes, few employees pay market rate parking fees. These factors were used as a starting point to expand the available knowledge base for identi- fying ways to improve employee usage of public transportation at airports. To gain additional insights into the factors affecting employee use of public transportation, surveys were distributed to 34 U.S. airports. Approximately one-third of the surveys were returned and were evenly split between large hub airports and small/medium airports. Survey findings are summarized in the following sections. Transit Service Characteristics Information from the survey responses concerning the existing transit service at the airport such as type, frequency, stop locations, and employee transit mode shares is summarized in Table 8-2. Transit Service Transit service to airports is typically limited in terms of the number of routes and the frequency of service. Only Chicago O'Hare, Reagan Washington National, and Boston airports have relatively robust service with the presence of a rapid rail station on each airport. Los Angeles International Airport has a significant amount of service nearby, but routes serve a transit center and rail station remote from the terminal. Most bus routes only run twice an hour.

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170 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Table 8-2. Airport transit service characteristics summary. No. of Transit Bus Frequency Rail Frequency Airport Routes per Route per Route Number of Stops Other Off- Off- Peak peak Peak peak (trips (trips (trips (trips On- Size per per per per Non- airport (a) Bus Rail hour) hour) hour) hour) Terminal terminal shuttle? Birmingham (AL) S 0 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. No Boston L 2 1 1-3 0-2 15 5-6 4 1 Yes Chicago O'Hare L 3 1 1-2 1 8-10 6-8 1 1 Yes Dallas/Ft. Worth L 2 1 (b) 1-2 1-2 2 (c) 1 (c) 2 4 Yes Denver (d) L 8 0 1-2 0-2 n.a. n.a. 2 0 Yes Orange Co. John M 2 0 2 1 n.a. n.a. 1 0 No Wayne Las Vegas L 2 0 2-5 2-3 n.a. n.a. 1 2 No Los Angeles (d) L 12 (e) 1 (b) 1-4 1-4 9 4 9 ? Yes Louisville M 3 0 2 1-2 n.a. n.a. 1 1 No Omaha M 0 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. No Phoenix (d) L 2 0 4 2 n.a. n.a. 3 0 No Reagan National L 1 2 4 6-8 12-20 6-8 1 0 Yes Sacramento M 1 0 1 0-1 n.a. n.a. 2 0 Yes Salt Lake City L 3 0 1-2 0-1 n.a. n.a. 1 3 No Seattle (d) L 6 0 1-3 1-2 n.a. n.a. 1 0 Yes San Diego L 1 0 6 4-6 n.a. n.a. 3 0 No (a) FAA hub size: S = small; M = medium; L = large. (b) Remote rail station. (c) Frequency based on shuttle bus to terminal from remote rail station. (d ) Remote bus station. (e) Linked to terminals with shuttle bus; frequency based on Metropolitan Transit Authority bus schedule. SOURCE: TCRP Report 83, Jacobs Consultancy, based upon data provided by individual airport operators. In addition, only two bus routes serve the west end of the airport, a major employment center where airline maintenance facilities and air cargo hubs are located. Of the other airports that responded, only Las Vegas and Orange County, California, airports have buses that run more than twice per hour. Transit Mode Share The data in Table 8-3 show that for airports with bus service only, typical employee transit mode shares are approximately 2% to 5%. Most airports with bus service only are toward the lower end of the range. The exception is Denver International Airport, which has SkyRide, a suc- cessful bus system oriented to the airport. SkyRide is a semi-express bus service from numerous free park-and-ride lots directly to Denver International Airport. Airports with rail service on the airport have significantly higher employee transit mode shares. O'Hare International Airport (Chicago) has the highest reported employee transit use with more than 23% of employees commuting to work on a typical day using rail or bus. Nearly all of these employees use rail. Most of the rail use was reported by airport employees who do not work for any of the airlines. Non-airline airport employees reported that 34% used rail, while airline employees reported 7% used rail. Non-flight crew airline employees reported the lowest