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Improving Public Transportation Mode Share for Employees 171 Table 8-3. Airport employee public transportation mode shares. Airport Employee Mode of Access Public Transportation Local Express Private Subtotal-- Non- Size (a) bus bus bus/van Rail transit transit Total Birmingham (AL) S 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100% Boston L 1.0% 4.5% 0.1% 11.0% 16.6% 83.4% 100% Chicago O'Hare (b) L 0.4% 2.4% N/A 20.7% 23.5% 76.5% 100% Dallas/Fort Worth L 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 4.0% 96.0% 100% Denver L 0.0% 14.2% 0.0% 0.0% 14.2% 85.8% 100% Orange Co. John M 1.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 2.0% 98.0% 100% Wayne 2.0% to 2.0% to 95% to Las Vegas L 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100% 5.0% 5.0% 98% Los Angeles L 0.0% 2.5% 0.0% 0.0% 2.5% 97.5% 100% Louisville M n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Omaha M 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100% Phoenix L 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7% 98.3% 100% Sacramento M 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 1.0% 99.0% 100% Salt Lake City L 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 98.0% 100% Seattle L 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 98.0% 100% San Diego L 2.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 98.0% 100% (a) FAA hub size: S = small; M = medium; L = large. (b) O'Hare data is based on a 1990 employee survey. SOURCE: TCRP Report 83, Jacobs Consultancy transit usage of the three employee groups. At Boston airport, Massport reports more than 16% of the employees used transit, of which 11% used rail. Employee Characteristics Information concerning the characteristics of employees at the airport (such as the number of employees, work locations, commute times, and employee parking cost) is summarized in this section. Number of Employees As indicated by the missing data in Table 8-4, good information about the number of employees working at an airport, and whether they work at the terminal or remotely, is not universally available. The number of employers combined with complex work schedules and dispersed work locations make tracking the number of employees working at the airport on a given day especially challenging. Flight crew members are especially difficult to track for sur- vey purposes; they may commute to work only one day a week or even arrive from another city via airplane. Data provided in the O'Hare employee survey provide some insights. Of the employees that responded to the survey, only 50% reported to work sometime on a given Wednesday. Flight crew members had the lowest percentage with less than 20% reporting to work on a given day. Percentage of Employees Working in the Terminal Area As suggested earlier, many employees have job locations dispersed throughout the airport. Based on typical data from the survey responses, 20% to 55% of employees at an airport do not
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172 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Table 8-4. Airport employment characteristics. Estimated Estimated percentage percentage of Estimated Estimated of employees percentage number of employees traveling of employee employees working in during residences Size on-site, terminal commute served by Other major Airport (a) typical day area peaks transit employment centers Number of Number centers of centers with transit Birmingham (AL) S n.a. 50% 70% 0% 3 3 Boston L 14,600 68% 78% n.a. 2 2 Chicago O'Hare L n.a. 56% 48% n.a. 3 1 Dallas/Fort Worth L 40,000 n.a. 90% 70% 2 2 John Wayne M 1,000 50% 70% 80% 0 n.a. Las Vegas L 8,000 85% 30% 90% 0 n.a. Louisville M n.a. 5% 10% n.a. 1 1 Omaha M 2,500 45% 33% 0% 0 n.a. Sacramento M 1,500 80% 25% 50% 0 n.a. Salt Lake City L n.a. 75-80% 60% 75% 3 3 San Diego L 3,000 97% 15% n.a. 0 n.a. (a) FAA hub size: S = small; M = medium; L = large. SOURCE: TCRP Report 83, Jacobs Consultancy, based upon data provided by individual airport operators. work in the terminal area. (See Table 8-4.) For these employees, a transit trip would require a transfer to a circulator shuttle bus or service with a stop at their workplace. Employee Commute Times A significant percentage of employees at an airport do not travel during peak commuting times, when transit service frequencies are the highest. The reported range is 10% to 90% with most responses being 70% or below. Airline crew employees typically have the highest percent- age of commute times outside normal commute hours. Transit Service to Major Employers The survey responses indicate that when major employers are present at an airport, sched- uled public transit service is typically provided. The frequency of the transit service may not be high, but it is usually provided by the local transit operator due to the concentration of employees. Cost of Employee Parking The survey responses confirm that the cost of employee parking is low at airports (see Table 8-5). The net cost to the employee is typically less than $1 per day and in most cases the employer pays for parking. Transit Subsidies A number of airports do partially subsidize the cost of transit for their employees. These air- ports include Boston, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Salt Lake City provides tran- sit passes that cover 50% of the cost to the employee. Sacramento subsidizes $35 of the $55 monthly cost of a bus pass for county employees only.