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176 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation service is provided from nearby communities to supplement the regional transit service that opens later. As noted previously, the Van Nuys Flyaway service operates reduced headways beginning at 4:45 a.m. Perceived Safety of Transit, Particularly at Night Given the other challenges of comparable cost and convenience, employees need to perceive the transit service and waiting areas as safe throughout the operating hours. The provision of well-lighted waiting areas, obvious security presence, and late night on-demand escort service are features that can be used to help mitigate this concern. Airport Employee Market Segments Public transportation may be a more convenient alternative for certain groups of airport employ- ees. The travel patterns of different market segments are discussed in the following paragraphs. Flight Crew Flight crew employees include pilots and flight attendants who are based in a particular city and travel to the airport to begin their rotation or tour of duty. A tour of duty can last several days. Therefore, their trip from the airport may come a few days after their access trip, and they may not commute more than once a week to the airport. Overall, they constitute a significant proportion of total airport employees but are not a large market for public transportation because of their infrequent commuting. Many flight crew members park their cars at the airport for the duration of their trips. Non-Flight Crew Airport employees who are not members of a flight crew will have a work commute of a more regular nature. These employees have varying types of work schedules, some of which change at specified time intervals. Some employees work additional hours on a regular basis or are subject to non-scheduled overtime. If employees have on-airport parking privileges, parking is often free or subsidized; however, the location of the parking may not be convenient to airline passenger terminal locations and may require the use of shuttle bus service. These shuttle services may not operate with the same level of service provided to passengers. The more inconvenient airport employee parking is, the more willing employees are to use an alternative that either decreases the amount of time they must wait for connections or increases the ease with which they can reach their reporting locations. As is the case for other commuters, airport employees are more sensitive to the cost of an access service, because they will be using the service multiple times during the week. One group of nonflight crew airport employees who are strong candidates for public trans- portation to an airport is airport employees in the many entry-level, low-wage service jobs avail- able at an airport (e.g., restaurants or cleaning). Because these jobs can require work commutes at hours not covered by the regional public transportation system and because so many potential candidates do not have access to a private vehicle, airport employers sometimes find it difficult to fill open positions for these jobs. Low-wage employees at an airport would be very sensitive to the cost of an airport access trip; this underscores the need for a pricing system differentiating between air passengers and airport employees.