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Six Steps in a Market-Based Strategy for Improving Airport Ground Access 21 Best Practices in the United States: Continuing Survey Programs Some of the most comprehensive survey programs in operation at the world's airports are Key Challenges in located in the United States. The following programs are good examples of commitments to Step 3 monitoring the performance of the system through surveys: Determine the The Air Passenger Survey Program of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operates the largest and most comprehensive data-gathering program for airport ground density charac- access in the country. teristics of the The historic role of Massport, the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs, and the overall ground Conservation Law Foundation to establish a commitment to continuous monitoring of the performance of the ground access system to the Boston airport. access market The airport passenger survey program of the MWCOG, which integrates air survey data into Define a geo- the regional transportation planning process in Washington, D.C., and parts of Maryland and Virginia. graphic area with more than 50 trip ends per square Step 3: Interpret the Markets and their Relationship mile and under- to Candidate Modes stand the nature The most basic question in market research for airport ground access is "Where are they com- of the market ing from?". Different airports have different fingerprints that identify their ground characteris- within this area tics. Some have highly dispersed origins. Some have highly dense ground access origins. Forming an understanding of those patterns is a critical step in the development of solutions for airport Define a geo- ground access. graphic area with Geographic information systems now allow analysts to interact with the data and create locally less than 5 trip derived categories of trip-end density. With these tools, each analyst can develop methods of ends per square revealing natural market patterns appropriate to the needs of the analysis. Logically, analysts examining distribution patterns in Manhattan would select different breaking points for data mile and under- categorization than analysts examining Denver. stand the nature of the market Geographic Scale of the Airport Ground Access Markets within this area Some airports attract most of their patrons from a relatively compact geographic area, while Define a geo- others draw their patrons from vast geographic areas. The geographic scale of the airport's graphic area with catchment area provides an early indication of the nature of the density patterns to be dealt with in the development of successful ground access services. This report defines the primary between 5 and market area for the airport as a whole as that area composed of zones with more than 5 airport 50 trip ends and trips per square mile, by all modes. This definition has proven to be an effective way of focus- understand the ing attention on those areas where empirically some 70% of the airport's ground transporta- tion customers originate. In the densely developed area served by Reagan Washington nature of the National Airport, the geographic area composed of zones with at least 5 trip ends per square market within mile covers only 484 square miles. In the highly suburbanized geography of Los Angeles Inter- national Airport, the area composed of zones with at least 5 trip ends per square mile spreads this area over 1,500 square miles. Analyze how These highly aggregated observations about the overall nature of the ground transportation each of the three market can be made early in the process and reveal much about the nature of the challenge of market areas may pairing airport access services to market segments. However, to understand the ability of mar- kets to support specific services, the total airport market must be disaggregated into at least three require different categories of trip-end density. kinds of services