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24 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation south of the San Francisco International Airport supported door-to-door van service with a trip-end density of 24 trips per square mile, while the Los Angeles primary market supported door-to-door services with an average of 27 trips ends per square mile. Door-to-door vans capture a variety of mode shares from their respective logical catchment areas. Mode shares of less than 10% are attained in Los Angeles, Boston, Seattle, and the market area south of San Francisco International Airport. Mode shares of about 20% are attained in the City of San Francisco, and in the Oakland market. While there are clearly densities below which door-to-door van services cannot be supported, they are able to serve in areas of high density. Van services operate with strong market performance in the City of San Francisco in a market area with more than 300 trip ends per square mile. Markets Supporting Exclusive Airport Buses to Downtown Examples of airport-oriented bus services from downtown hotel and major activity centers have existed in most major U.S. airports, serving a wide variety of downtown trip-end densities. While these buses serve central business district (CBD) densities as high as 500 trip ends per square mile in Boston or New York, they also serve the smallest of downtowns. As buses have consider- able flexibility in their operating patterns, this research effort has not established a lower level sup- port threshold under which services cannot operate. Advanced downtown bus services, such as the Airport Express in New Orleans, have shown exceptionally strong market capture rates. The Need for a Composite Approach The market analysis process examines the strength of specific markets to support airport ground access services and provides hints as to the modes best matched to those markets. While the details of effective market segmentation will vary from airport to airport, it is fair to say that a comprehensive strategy to deal with U.S. airport ground access must deal with at least three geographic submarkets. A Dense Urban Market. Clearly, there is a geographic area of highest trip-end density, some portions of which may support fixed-route and -schedule services. There is no empirical evi- dence that zones with less than 50 trip ends per square mile can support such services on their own. Successful rail services have been observed in market areas of far more than 100 trip ends per square mile. Hotel loop buses serve small geographic areas, with highly compact markets: Seattle's Gray Line Express serves a hotel-oriented concentration of more than 400 trip ends per square mile. Boston's CBD generates more than 500 trip ends per square mile, support- ing both rail and hotel loop services. An Exurban Market. Clearly, significant portions of the overall airport market come from large geographic areas where collection services need to be provided by means other than the vehicle providing line-haul services to the airport. Express services dedicated to the needs of the air traveler are supported by immediate market areas with trip-end densities less than 10 trip ends per square mile and provide park-and-ride availability to those coming from areas of very low trip-end density. A Middle Market. Finally, there is a category for which upper and lower boundaries are less clear. It is the largest of the three categories for U.S. airport ground access: zones of origin generally more than 5 and less than 50 trip ends per square mile. As discussed in Step 4, this market may be the most difficult to serve. Best Practices in the United States: Examples of Market Types at U.S. Airports The wide variety of market types in the United States serves to illustrate the importance of designing a cross section of services. In the United States, airport markets cannot be characterized