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Six Steps in a Market-Based Strategy for Improving Airport Ground Access 27 the adoption of dedicated services (by whatever mode) rather than shared service of traditional mul- tistop transit (by whatever mode). Whether a dedicated train or a dedicated airport bus service is being considered, baggage handling can be designed in from the outset. Summary: Designing to Deal with Revealed Attributes For each of the four design areas specified previously in "Lessons Learned from Successful Sys- tems," U.S. designers can strive to attain the attributes revealed in the successful international systems not by mimicking the choice of mode but rather through careful regional systems design that finds solutions for the issues defined by the four attribute areas. Design Airport Ground Access Services for the Three Geographic Areas At this point in the planning process, candidate markets for services can be defined. Within the contour for the market area of more than 50 trip ends per square mile, submarkets can be sought at significantly higher market concentration. With knowledge of the location of these strong market segments, rail and other services can be considered. The market research method in this report advocates defining a targeted geographic area for a given candidate service and understanding the airport trip-end density (all modes) from that geographic area to better understand the contribution that service can play. At least three geographic areas should be examined for the service most likely to meet the needs of the customer: Services for the Dense Urban Market. High-quality line-haul service to the highest trip-end density should be developed, whether by rail or by dedicated airport bus. Examples of high- quality rail services include Washington, D.C.'s Metrorail system and Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) service to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Examples of high-quality bus service to the CBD include the specialized airport bus service from New Orleans International Airport, as well as those in Denver and downtown Seattle. Services for the Exurban Market. Dedicated airport bus service from specially designed regional parking facilities should be examined to offer services to those areas where airport trip-end densities cannot justify or make feasible collection services. Both the Los Angeles International Airport FlyAway program and the (Boston) Logan Express programs are adding additional lines and services. Services for the Middle Market. A variety of strategies should be explored for the majority of U.S. airport travelers who come from outside of the densest downtown areas, but within the principal market area of the airport, defined here as the area with more than 5 airport trip ends per square mile. Within this area, a wide variety of combinations of door-to-door, fixed-route, and, most importantly, combinations thereof, can be considered. Understanding Demographic Segments Within Each Geographic Market In the design of candidate services for each of the geographic areas, the market researchbased planning process requires information beyond the density of trip ends. This report strongly rec- ommends that each geographic area be examined in terms of the four demographic segments: resident business, resident non-business, non-resident business, and non-resident non-business. In many cases, the support of a high-fare, high-quality premium service (such as the Heathrow Express) is dependent upon the strength of the business market. In other cases, the support of multistop transit service (such as the Blue Line in Boston) is dependent on a strong non- business market, including students and vacationers. In many cases, airport buses from regional collection points are very attractive to the resident market (who find lower parking charges) and