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28 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation not at all attractive to the non-resident market (who find it more convenient to get rental cars on the airport than in outlying areas). The knowledge of demographic characteristics gained from the ground access survey will also become critical at the time of marketing and pricing the services. For example, to increase ridership on days of low business travel, a marketing strategy might offer low fares for families via local newspapers only. The incoming businessperson would not be aware of the existence of these fares and would continue to pay the higher basic fares. Such a marketing strategy would be designed to lower fares for that portion of the market that is elastic to fare change and not to lower fares for that portion of the market that is inelastic in relation to price. Best Practices in the United States: Service Based on Markets Examples of best practices can be found for all three of the submarkets, ranging from dense urban conditions to areas of dispersed origins. Best Practices for the Dense Urban Market A good example of best case practices for service to areas with a high density of airport trip ends is the Airport Express bus service in New Orleans, which captured about 15% of the entire airport market before Hurricane Katrina. Its mode share rate for its primary market area (downtown) may be the highest of any U.S. airport. The high-frequency AirBART bus operated by Oakland International Airport to the BART rail station captures about 9% mode share. It can be argued that this service is well matched with the needs of this airport dominated by a low-cost carrier. To Reagan Washington National Airport, the Metrorail service covers the geographic area where most airport trips originate. This match between the origins of the riders and the location of the rail service in that area results in an airport-wide mode share of more than 12%. An unusual best practice is the extension of the FlyAway express bus service concept to a new terminal within the Los Angeles Union Station, providing an exceptional level of urban intermodal connections. Best Practices for the Exurban Market The Logan Express system serving Boston airport continues to grow as more services are added. These services capture an estimated 20% of their catchment areas. At the time of data collection, airport buses from three parking lots attracted more airport riders than the entire fixed-route and -schedule public transportation system. The Marin Airporter is a privately owned service noted for its understanding of the market needs of its customers. The Marin Airporter has captured 30% of the travelers in its market area of San Francisco. The Van Nuys FlyAway is a mature dedicated airport bus operation, capturing an estimated 17% of the travelers from its catchment area. Best Practices for the Middle Market While the dedicated express bus and the longer distance specialized van service are character- ized by line-haul trips of more than 10 miles, the middle market is marked by shorter trip lengths. Service operated in middle markets experiences competition from the pick-up/drop-off mode and the taxi mode. In Oakland, door-to-door vans capture nearly 20% of their logical catchment area in a mid- dle market of less than 20 airport trip ends per square mile. Door-to-door services in an area immediately south of San Francisco International Airport, with much shorter trip distances, attract about 7% of their logical catchment area.