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Six Steps in a Market-Based Strategy for Improving Airport Ground Access 29 · Chapter 4 documents similar markets in Las Vegas and Orlando, in which door-to-door vans capture more than 10% of the airport-wide ground access market. · In Seattle and Los Angeles, door-to-door vans capture more than 5% of their respective Key Challenges in market areas in areas of middle market density. Step 5 The middle market, described in this analysis as the zones of more than 5 and less than 50 air- · Manage the air- port trip ends per square mile, is the largest of the three and the most difficult to serve. With low port to encour- reported market capture rates and with occupancy levels approaching those of single-party taxis, this market segment needs the most research. age transit first · Allocate curb space to give pri- Step 5: Manage the Airport to Encourage ority to those Higher Occupancy Vehicle Use arriving by higher Several elements of a comprehensive strategy to improve public mode airport ground access occupancy mode can be implemented within the boundaries of the airport itself. The manner in which the airport · Improve the is managed can have a significant effect on the quality of the experience for those travelers who have chosen to access the airport by more efficient, higher occupancy modes. architectural The various strategies for improving public transportation access to airports are set against standards experi- the context that most U.S. airports are not managed to encourage the use of higher occupancy ence of the pub- modes; in many cases, the opposite is the case. Airports are primarily seen as transfer facilities lic mode traveler between various forms of automobile use and the air services operated at the airport. In many cases, the motivation for the creation of new strategies for managing ground transportation · Build transfer vehicles (such as peripherally located Ground Transportation Centers) is to remove the larger facilities for bus vehicles from the primary roadway, which is freed up to devote more capacity to private auto- mobile pick-up and drop-off. and van modes to the design standards Encouraging the Use of High-Occupancy Service attained for rail In the United States, currently only one airport has rail transportation that carries more air travelers for ground access than do the bus and van options: Reagan Washington National Air- projects port. Even at airports with new rail services, such as Portland, Oregon, more passengers depend · Modify regula- upon bus and van services than upon the rail option to the downtown. And yet, in sharp con- tions that make trast to the recent advances in design for the airport/rail interface, there has been very little coor- dinated attempt to determine the potential of improving the connection between the bus and it difficult for the the airport activities. traveler to pur- Ironically, the modes most successful at most U.S. airports--buses and vans--have received chase public the least amount of attention in terms of functional priority at key airport transfer points. In the mode services at allocation of curb space, the lanes closest to the terminals (those with the shortest walking distance) can be allocated to the most efficient modes, rather than a traditional pattern of allo- the airport curb cating these lanes to private vehicles. · Modify regula- All too frequently, the traveler who chooses more efficient, higher occupancy modes from the tions that make it airport is sent to an outer curb, unprotected from weather, with little in the way of accurate infor- mation or services. In many airports, the task of choosing a van operator, for example, occurs difficult to use outside with no protection from rain or snow, or heat. In many cases, critical connections with higher occupancy long-headway regional services are made from an isolated curb, with no accurate real-time infor- services to the mation informing the traveler that the bus is on time, is late, or has already departed. Often, trav- elers waiting at the curb for a shuttle bus to a regional rail system are not given information about airport without the arrival time of the bus or the rail system it is serving. prior reservation