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The Context for Public Transportation to Major Airports 35 latest ground access market share. This chapter now presents a summary of how aviation pat- terns have changed between the analysis years 1998 and 2005. This report includes all U.S. airports with public mode share of 6% or more, which creates a sample of 27 of the most public modeoriented airports in the United States. For Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport, the research team was informed that no new survey information had been collected since the opening of the Hiawatha Light Rail. If this information had been available, the research team estimates that a rail mode share of somewhere less than 5% would be augmented by bus/van shares, making a combined public mode share of more than 6%. For the sake of brevity, the sample will be referred to as the 27 most transit-oriented airports in the United States--technically the sample should be called 27 out of 28 of the most transit-oriented airports. U.S. Airports and Their Public Mode Share In the study of airport ground access, focus on the originating passengers, i.e., those who are not changing from one airplane to another, is critical. However, the scale of the total operations for the 27 airports is also important and is introduced in Table 2-1, which shows the variation in total enplanement: this category includes all aircraft boardings for revenue purposes. The largest airport in the sample, Atlanta, has more than 10 times the total volume of the smallest airport in the sample, New Orleans. And yet volume alone cannot explain the market share gained by public modes of ground transportation, as New Orleans's well-managed downtown shuttle bus system gains about the same market share (15%) as the combination of rail and bus/van services in Atlanta. The relationship between public mode share and a wide range of geo- graphic factors is discussed in Chapter 3. The wide variation in the growth or shrinkage of total airline passengers for each airport will be discussed in the following section. For clarification, the number in the first row in the sixth column means that the total enplanements at San Francisco International Airport have decreased and are now 83.4% of those in 1998. The number in the second row of the sixth column means that the total enplanements at JFK Airport have increased, and are now 134.5% of those in 1998. The Scale of the Public Mode Volumes at These Airports The scale of public transportation markets varies by the size of the airport and by the propen- sity of the airport region to support public transportation. Table 2-2 reviews the 27 airports ranked by the volumes of airline passengers actually using public transportation, here defined as rail, bus, and shared-ride vans, but excluding single-party limousines, courtesy shuttles, and charter oper- ations. Table 2-2 focuses on the scale of an airport in terms of the absolute number of passengers who are transported to the airport by a public mode. Importantly, these calculations are applied to the number of originating passengers, i.e., excluding those who are changing from plane to plane. The 27 airports included in the sample generate about 60 million public mode trips when counting trips both to and from the airport. Table 2-2 shows that, at present, more travelers are using the public mode ground access services in New York's JFK airport than at any other U.S. airport, with an estimated 2.2 million annual travelers going to the airport on JFK's new combination of people mover to subway/commuter rail, express buses, and shared- ride vans. After JFK airport, the next highest public mode volume occurs at an airport that does not rely on fixed-guideway investment, whether by rail or people mover. (A rail station near Los Angeles International Airport does not attract any significant number of airline passengers.) Table 2-2