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44 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Table 2-4. Percentage of air travelers who are local residents. More than 55% 50% to 55% 40% to 49% Less than 40% Sacramento (69%) Dallas/Ft. Worth (54%) San Jose (49%) Phoenix (38%) Boston (59%) Chicago O'Hare (54%) Baltimore/Washington (47%) Tampa (38%) Seattle (57%) Oakland (52%) Salt Lake City (45%) Washington Dulles (33%) Atlanta (50%) San Francisco (43%) New Orleans (28%) Los Angeles (42%) Reagan National (29%) Fort Lauderdale (41%) Orlando (27%) Denver (41%) Las Vegas (17%) Portland (40%) San Diego (40%) SOURCE: TCRP Report 62, Jacobs Consultancy. area and who live close enough to access the airport using ground transportation. Airline passen- gers who are not local residents are visitors who do not live within the market area of the airport they are using. Resident airline passengers are more likely to have (1) a private vehicle, (2) more information on airport access, and (3) more familiarity with regional traffic patterns and trans- portation options. More than 50% of the airline passengers at seven airports surveyed are local residents. These airports include those that serve as large airline connecting hubs (Dallas/Fort Worth, Chicago O'Hare, and Atlanta), plus airports located on the East and West Coasts (Boston, Oakland, and Seattle). The proximity to leisure markets or vacation destinations influences the passenger pro- file at airports serving fewer than 50% residents (e.g., San Francisco, Los Angeles, Ft. Lauderdale, Tampa, Las Vegas, and Orlando). National Patterns of Access to Airports and Terminals Most of the airport ground access data presented in this report were collected by the airports themselves (or regional planning agencies associated with those airports). However, a nationwide view of access patterns to terminals can be obtained from the American Travel Survey (ATS), which described about 365 million annual total ground access trips to and from U.S. airports in the survey year of 1995. In the ATS, these trips are categorized by whether they occur in the traveler's area of residence or in the non-home portion of the longer distance trip. In this report, travelers in the first category are described as the "resident" market and those in the second cate- gory are described as the "non-resident" market for purchase of ground transportation services. Terminal Access at the Home End of the Trip Getting airline passengers to access the airport with public modes seems to be more difficult than getting passengers on intercity bus and intercity rail to access their terminals with public modes. Looking at the mode of ground access selected from a national aggregate perspective, ground access modes to all three kinds of terminals (i.e., bus, train, air) are dominated by the private automobile. In this resident market, those accessing a bus or a train have a significantly higher propensity to select a mode other than the private automobile to get to the bus or train terminal, with combined mode shares for taxi, limousine, and public mode at nearly 30% market share. Figure 2-5 reveals that bus, van, limousine, and rail capture about 20% of the market to long- distance bus and rail terminals, but capture only 8% of national travel to airports, excluding taxis.