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50 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation "The adopted Regional Aviation Plan needs to be supported by complementary ground access pro- grams and projects at existing and proposed regional commercial airports. The aviation plan is a com- ponent of the Regional Transportation Plan (RTP), a federally mandated long-range transportation plan . . . ." (5) To accommodate the projected air travel demand, the Los Angeles aviation planning process focused attention on two areas: (1) the possible use of high-speed ground transportation serv- ices in redistributing the demand away from Los Angeles International Airport toward other regional airports such as Ontario International, Palmdale Regional, Bob Hope, John Wayne/ Orange County, Long Beach, and San Bernardino International and (2) the actions that the airport agency itself can take to deal with ground access issues. The development of all alternatives in the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) Master Plan took place within a heightened policy awareness of the importance of higher occupancy strategies, and connection with regional transit. Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA), the airport oversight and operations department for Los Angeles, establishes the following three goals of the Master Plan: "Maximizing access to and from regional transportation systems, Providing opportunities for people to connect to mass transit systems, and Protecting neighborhoods by minimizing or mitigating any impacts on local streets." (7) The plan states that "In order to relieve traffic impacts on area residents and ease congestion on surface streets and freeways around LAX, LAWA is committed to a Master Plan that improves access to and circulation around the airport and develops alternatives to the increased use of single occupancy vehicles." (7, emphasis added) The development of the LAX Master Plan entered a new phase in early 2007 with a new mayor and Stipulated Settlement Agreement with petitioners that allowed certain elements of the plan to proceed, while other design elements were put on hold. An earlier terminal scheme, which moved most of the landside access facilities to an intermodal center at an adjacent transit station, has not gained the support of the present mayor. At this time, a planning process is under way to develop a revised design for various components of the LAX Master Plan including reconfig- uration of the North Airfield and the Central Terminal Area. Environmental Approvals in Europe The need for explicit action to deal with the environmental impacts of airport growth has been explicitly spelled out in environmental approvals recently issued in other areas, including London and Zurich. In London, the approval process for the new Terminal 5 at Heathrow was made contingent upon the airport agency bringing about a set of rail improvements in the region, including the Heathrow Express. In fact, the environmental and political approval of the massive terminal expansion project was, at least in part, the result of years of commitment by the airport management to deal with off-airport environmental impacts including the invest- ment of more than $600 million in the Heathrow Express rail system. An airport access program, called "Free Flow Heathrow," includes the design and subsidization of new local bus routes for employees working at the airport. In Switzerland, the approval for a new airport expansion project was made conditional upon the commitment of the airport authority to make a significant improvement in the overall pub- lic mode share, for both passengers and employees. Until March 2000, Zurich Airport was owned by the local government (called a "Canton"), where every expenditure had to be approved in a town meetinglike process. At the time of the referendum to approve the airport expansion proj- ect, the airport had an overall public mode share of 34%. As part of the political approval of the