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62 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Table 3-3 shows that, in general, providing dedicated service does not itself guarantee high market share to rail. Looking at the 14 airports with rail mode share of 20% or higher, seven do provide dedicated service and seven do not. Increase in Mode Share Due to Dedicated Premium Service Given that every airport needs lower priced shared ground access services, the following ques- tion is raised: how much increase in rail market share would result from the addition of dedi- cated service to the existing shared service? This question is currently being examined by ground access planners in Chicago, New York City, and Paris. As summarized below, planners are designing higher priced rail services to O'Hare, Midway, JFK, and de Gaulle airports to serve in addition to existing lower quality rail services to those airports. Ridership data that document the experience of Heathrow airport can help answer this ques- tion. Longitudinal data have been created that describe the change in overall rail market share between Heathrow and central London resulting from the addition of highly specialized dedi- cated services to a system that already offered one-seat, non-dedicated services shared with all other rail system travelers. Data from before and after the addition of Heathrow dedicated ser- vices have been examined and, from these data, an expansion factor for each of the four market segments has been calculated to represent the growth in market share attributable to the addi- tion of dedicated rail service. Importantly, the market segment most impacted by the premium service is the resident business segment, which experienced a 60% growth in market share. By contrast, resident non-business, more concerned about cost minimization, grew only by 13%. Non-resident market share to rail grew by about 40%. All in all, the addition of premium rail service to the existing shared rail service resulted in a 33% growth in rail mode share to Heathrow. Service Attributes of Proposed Projects In four cities around the world, major capital investments to improve rail services to major airports are being considered. In the case of Berlin, the decision was made in connection with the decision to focus all airport activity on one new regional airport, phasing out older closer-in facilities. In the other three cities--Paris, Chicago, and New York, planning is underway to pro- vide high-quality service that is dedicated to the needs of the air traveler. In addition, there have been plans for several years to build a maglev train between Munich Airport and the downtown Main rail station (Figure 3-4); the political future of that project is not clear after a tragic acci- dent on the maglev test facility in Northern Germany. It is important to note that in each of these four examples, local decision makers are consid- ering dedicated, premium service concepts at this time. The actual form of the two U.S. projects, however, is still under active debate. Berlin Brandenburg Airport In 1999, German Railways announced its decision to develop a dedicated train to operate express service to the new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport, which will consolidate and replace the existing airports in Berlin. An S-Bahn suburban rail line already serves the site for the new airport, currently known as Schonefeld Airport, with a 25-minute service to downtown. The S-Bahn division of German Railways will develop a new dedicated express line that will connect with Berlin's new central rail station, called "Berlin-Lehrter Bahnhof," with only two intermediate stations. The specially designed trains will be capable of 100 mph service and will reduce the running time to downtown to 18 minutes.