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Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 71 New York JFK (19% Market Share) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 2 John F. Kennedy International 19% 8% 11% Airport SOURCE: Ground Access Surveys (13) The Airport. John F. Kennedy International Airport is located about 16 miles from the center of Midtown Manhattan. The airport served about 42 MAP in 2005; of these, some 11.6 million were originating passengers. In theory, driving time between Manhattan and JFK can be as short as 25 minutes, with several hours experienced in the worst cases of congestion. Taxi fares are about $45. Connections at the Airport. JFK has long been known as a difficult airport to serve with pub- lic transportation services, as its terminal structure in highly decentralized. To deal with this geographic challenge, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey examined a wide variety of solutions for public transportation access, including a proposed master plan that called for all pub- lic transportation facilities to be located in the center of the airport, with people mover shuttles from the central check-in terminal (only for public transportation travelers) to each of the cur- rently existing air terminals. After that plan was rejected, the Port Authority developed the AirTrain concept, which opened in 2003. According to the most recently available data, the airport ground access system serving JFK has experienced a major increase in its public transportation mode share. The overall public mode share of 19% is a major increase over the 7% reported in 1997. The automated AirTrain system operates three services over one right-of-way. One line trav- els on a counter-clockwise loop from Jamaica Station through the airport, stopping at five stations serving the nine terminals, and back to Jamaica Station. A second line travels through the counter-clockwise loop of airline terminals from Howard Beach Station and back. The sys- tem operates a continuous loop with the ability to travel in either direction within the terminal area only, which is used for intra-airport connections. The multibillion dollar project, coupled with a parallel increase in van usage, has resulted in a significant increase in public transporta- tion use since the publication of the two TCRP airport access studies. Rail. The traveler has the option of two separate rail systems for the continuing journey to Manhattan or other regional destinations. The greatest number of rail connections exists at Jamaica Station, which serves the Long Island Railroad and several subway lines. Although it varies significantly by hour of the day, the Long Island Railroad has many non-stop or one-stop trains directly to Midtown Manhattan, terminating in Penn Station. However, the strongest rid- ership is via Howard Beach Station, which is served only by the A-line, which enters Manhattan near the site of the former World Trade Center. Bus. Dedicated airport-only bus service is offered to a Midtown terminal near Grand Central Station, at which point connections are offered to major hotels and the Port Authority bus terminal. Shared-Ride Van. More than a dozen firms are operating shared-ride services from JFK, in addition to the airport bus service to Manhattan. Boston (18% Market Share) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 3 General Edward Lawrence 18% 6% 12% Logan International Airport SOURCE: Massachusetts Port Authority Surveys (14 )
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72 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation The Airport. Boston's Logan International Airport is located about 3 to 4 miles from the center of the business district, with highly dependable automobile travel times now established with the new Ted Williams Tunnel. The trip takes less than 15 minutes, depending on the traf- fic near the downtown destination. The airport served about 27 MAP in 2005; of these, some 10.4 million were originating passengers. Connections at the Airport. The airport has four major air terminal buildings, which are now connected by moving sidewalk facilities through the central parking garage structures. All buses and ground transportation services pick up and drop off at all four of the terminals. Although the recently relocated Blue Line rail station is only about 1 mile from the farthest ter- minals, an indirect ramping system makes the connecting ride longer than it was before the reconstruction of the roadway system. An additional water shuttle system serves the downtown and has traditionally captured less than 1% mode share for airline passengers. Rail. The rapid transit station at Boston's airport attracts more than 4,000 travelers daily, approximately one-third of whom are air travelers. In 2005, the airport's rapid transit station attracted 6% of airline passengers to the system operated by the MBTA. That rail ridership has declined since the inauguration of the Silver Line Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) to South Station. Bus. The tripling of market share by scheduled services is the result of many years of public agency participation, considerable operator investment, and public subsidy. Of the nearly 2 million travelers per year who use scheduled services to the airport, the majority of them use the Logan Express bus service, which offers non-stop airport connections to three regional terminals located on or beyond Route 128. Over a 25-year period, policy makers in Massachusetts have been trying--with a remarkable level of success--to decrease the use of private transportation and to increase the use of public transit modes to Logan airport. In 1970, 84% of airline passengers arrived at the airport in either a private or rented car; by 1996, that percentage had decreased to 48%. In 1970, fewer than 2% of airline passengers arrived at the airport by scheduled bus. In 1996, 12% arrived by scheduled services, and 10% was recorded in 2006. Five bus companies provide standard coach services directly to the airport, in addition to the Logan Express, which serves Braintree, Framingham, and Woburn with new services to Peabody. Bus Rapid Transit. Since the data was collected, the MBTA has inaugurated a major bus rapid transit project that has dual-propulsion vehicles capable of operating on electric power within the new downtown bus tunnel and on other sources outside of the bus tunnel. The new bus tunnel serves the rapidly developing Seaport area of the city with connections to the new Ted Williams Tunnel (Interstate 90), a stop for a major new convention center, and direct service to the South Station Transportation Center. Travelers going to South Station and the Red Line are encouraged to take the new BRT ser- vice; travelers going to Government Center, the Orange Line, or the Green Line are encouraged to take the airport bus (free) to the newly relocated Blue Line rapid transit center. Since the open- ing of the BRT service to South Station, boardings at the Blue Line station (both air travelers and others) have fallen considerably, suggesting a roughly 50-50 split between the two services. Shared-Ride Van. For some reason, shared-ride van services have not become as success- ful in Boston as they have in other airports. A major carrier went bankrupt after a series of operating problems, and no single operator dominates the market. The researchers estimate that less than 3% of the Logan ground access market chooses high-occupancy vans, as distinct