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74 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation 3 miles from the airline passenger terminal area of the airport and is served by a dedicated bus line, called "AirBART." The fare for the AirBART bus is $3. Plans for an automated people mover from the rail station to the airport have been under development for some time. Rail. Oakland airport managers have calculated that the bus connection to the BART sys- tem attracts about 9% of the ground transportation market. The airport managers report that, in 2006, bus ridership gained almost 6% over the previous year. From Coliseum Station, BART trains serve an extensive network on the East Bay area of the San Francisco peninsula itself with service between 4 a.m. and midnight. For many hours of the day, the BART connection to down- town San Francisco is actually faster than the taxi alternative. Service from Coliseum Station to the Union Square area takes about 21 minutes, at a rail fare of less than $3.50. Bus. Given the very high utilization of AirBART, scheduled bus services to Oakland airport play a smaller role than in many U.S. airports. In a 2002 survey, scheduled buses attracted about 3% of the market. Shared-Ride Van. In that same survey, shared-ride vans attracted about 3% of the market, which is lower than other recent experiences in the Bay Area. The airport website lists more than 100 service providers under the category "limo" but only two under the category "scheduled vans and buses." New Orleans (15% Market Share) Market Share U.S. Rank Airport Total Rail Bus/Van 6 Louis Armstrong New Orleans 15% 0% 15% International Airport SOURCE: TCRP Report 62 (16 ) The Airport. Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport is located about 15 miles from downtown New Orleans, which is about a 25-minute drive under conditions of no con- gestion. The airport served about 7.8 MAP in 2005, of which about 3.5 million were originating passengers. Note that passenger volumes in 2005 were about 20% lower than in 2004. Similar volumes were down 36% in 2006, again compared against 2004. Connections at the Airport. The New Orleans airport is smaller than many in this sample and operates out of a single, compact terminal. Within this terminal, the proximity of the bag- gage pick-up area to the franchised van departure area is nearly optimal, from the point of view of maximizing public mode use. The Shuttle Express departure locations are closer than private automobile pick-up areas, and ticket sales are located on the immediate path between baggage carousels and the curb serving the vans. Bus/Van. According to the TCRP reports, New Orleans had one of the highest mode shares to bus of any U.S. airport, with a reported 15% of airline passengers using the direct, dedicated hotel loop services to downtown and New Orleans East. From the airport, vehicles are dispatched with varying levels of directness. The highly successful scheduled van system does not require a reservation from the airport, but does require that reservations be made 24 hours in advance of the trip to the airport. No new ground access data are available; however, shifts in mode share are to be expected over the post-Katrina period, as the relative portion of air travelers going downtown to the convention- oriented hotels might have decreased. Nevertheless, the New Orleans example--where a series of small buses run a fixed route and schedule service from the airport, which varies by time