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Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 91 · Baggage-handling strategy: In the discussion for this category, each airport access system is reviewed in terms of the strategies employed to deal with the baggage of the air traveler. Specific examples are presented for off-site check-in strategies, ranging from full-service downtown terminals to integration with other mechanisms for off-site check-in. When rele- vant, the status of such systems is summarized. · Bus: Although their relative importance in Europe and Asia is less important than in the United States, key services are provided by bus. Small buses (i.e., vans) are included in the overall mode shares for bus. · Relevant market characteristics: This descriptive information is reviewed in the context of any known market data for each of the systems. Market characteristics include the extent to which the market is oriented to the downtown or to other areas well served by the regional rail system. Oslo (64% Market Share) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 1 Oslo Airport 64% 39% 25% SOURCE: Vergleich internationaler Flughäfen (27 ) The Airport. Oslo's new airport at Gardermoen opened in 1998. The airport is 30 miles north of downtown Oslo and served more than 16 MAP in 2006. Travel time by taxi from Oslo to the airport is estimated to be 45 minutes. Because the new airport is 30 miles from downtown Oslo, high-speed transit services have a market advantage over taxis and other modes of transportation. The Norwegian authorities set a policy goal of 50% market share capture for the combined rail services. Connections at the Airport. The new Oslo airport was built from the initial concept to serve as an exemplary intermodal transfer facility. Designed from the outset to serve as part of an integrated access system, the airport is centralized, with all gates served by a single landside terminal. Because of the natural geography of the airport site, the rail facility is at grade for most of the area. The rail service is in the lower (basement) level of the air terminal building. Escala- tor service is provided from the train station to the check-in and ticketing area of the airport. Buses depart from a location very close to the baggage claim area. Rail. Rail service between the airport and downtown Oslo was initiated in 1998. The airport is served both by a dedicated service (the Oslo Airport Express) and standard national railway service. In 1998, interim service was operated bypassing an incomplete tunnel section that has now been replaced by a more direct route between the airport and downtown. The Oslo Airport Express is designed for 120-mph operation, consistent with Norwegian intercity services. The train makes this 30-mile trip between the airport and downtown in 19 minutes. There are six trains per hour; of these six trains, three continue beyond Oslo's Central Station. Baggage-Handling Strategy. The Oslo Airport Express train was designed with a proactive strategy for baggage. The operation does not currently have an off-site baggage-handling system, but it incorporates a unique seating layout, in which every seat faces a baggage storage area. All seats served by each entrance door face the baggage-storage shelves. Originally planned baggage check-in services at the Oslo downtown rail station have now been abandoned. Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) offers a kiosk for check-in for those travelers with only hand baggage. Bus. Airport bus service is offered to some major hotels with a 55-minute travel time every 10 minutes, for a fare that is lower than the competing rail services.