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92 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Market Characteristics. The managers of the Oslo Airport Express train estimate that some 48% of all deplaning airline passengers are destined to the city of Oslo. Another 11% are going to other towns in the southwest directly served by the rail service from the airport. The marketing strategy for the Oslo Airport Express focuses heavily on the needs of the business traveler, and extensive work has been undertaken with Norway's largest employers to sell tick- ets directly to these organizations. Some 58% of the airline passengers using rail were traveling on business. Hong Kong (63% Market Share) Market Share European/Asian Rank Airport Total Rail Bus 2 Hong Kong International 63% 28% 35% Airport SOURCE: MTRC (28) The Airport. Hong Kong International Airport serves about 44 MAP and is located 21 miles from Hong Kong Island. From the airport, a taxi ride to Hong Kong Island costs more than $50 and takes 30 minutes under optimal conditions, much longer when the downtown roads are congested. The new expressway, a part of the regional highway system built to access the airport development area, has virtually no associated congestion or travel time delay. Connections at the Airport. Hong Kong airport was designed to achieve optimized inte- gration between rail and air facilities. All deplaning passengers retrieve their bags in one centralized arrival hall/customs facility located on the lower level of the airport terminal. From this facility, passengers walk across the arrival hall and board the train without changing levels. Conversely, the train brings all enplaning passengers to the upper level of the airport terminal, where they proceed through ticketing without changing levels. Rail. The Hong Kong Airport Express train departs from the airport every 8 minutes for three stations: Hong Kong (Central), Kowloon, and Tsing Yi. Travel time between the airport and Hong Kong (Central) is 23 minutes. Fares were initially established at $9 to Hong Kong, $8 to Kowloon, and $5 to Tsing Yi. The Airport Express is operated by the MTRC. The researchers estimate that 25% of airline passengers take the Airport Express and 3% take the local. Baggage-Handling Strategy. MTRC developed the world's first downtown check-in sys- tem for use by all airlines. The system provides baggage check-in facilities at both Central Sta- tion and Kowloon Station. All check-in functions, including the issuance of boarding passes, are undertaken at the downtown facilities staffed by airline personnel, rather than rail employ- ees. Although the service is free, it is available only to those who have purchased a rail ticket, and its operation is subsidized by the rail system. Central Station started with 28 check-in posi- tions of 45 potential positions, while Kowloon Station opened with 33 positions of 83 potential positions. Bus. The airport can also be reached by a bus connecting with the Tung Hung rail line, which was also built by MTRC as part of the integrated railway project serving the new devel- opment area around the airport. About 25% of airline passengers choose the more expensive Airport Express service; about 3% take the shuttle bus to the less expensive Tung Chung service. Bus service specifically designed for airline passengers serves major hotel locations in Kowloon and Hong Kong. Airbus service focusing on hotel locations was originally provided for about $5, while a major transit operator, Citybus, has created a series of new bus routes with lower fares.