Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page R1
ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 4 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation
OCR for page R2
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2008 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Independent Consultant VICE CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR Jeff Hamiel MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS John D. Bowe, President, Americas Region, APL Limited, Oakland, CA Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James Crites DallasFort Worth International Airport Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Richard de Neufville Norfolk, VA Massachusetts Institute of Technology William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Kevin C. Dolliole David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond UCG Associates Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, John K. Duval Charlottesville Beverly Municipal Airport Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Angela Gittens HNTB Corporation Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Steve Grossman Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Oakland International Airport Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Tom Jensen Michael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of National Safe Skies Alliance Technology, Atlanta Catherine M. Lang Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Federal Aviation Administration Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Gina Marie Lindsey Los Angeles World Airports Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Carolyn Motz Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Hagerstown Regional Airport Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Richard Tucker Rosa Clausell Rountree, Executive Director, Georgia State Road and Tollway Authority, Atlanta Huntsville International Airport Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Sabrina Johnson Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Richard Marchi EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International--North America Laura McKee Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Air Transport Association of America Joseph H. Boardman, Federal Railroad Administrator, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA National Association of State Aviation Officials Paul R. Brubaker, Research and Innovative Technology Administrator, U.S.DOT Melissa Sabatine George Bugliarello, Chancellor, Polytechnic University of New York, Brooklyn, and Foreign Secretary, American Association of Airport Executives Robert E. Skinner, Jr. National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Sean T. Connaughton, Maritime Administrator, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the SECRETARY Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Transportation Research Board John H. Hill, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Carl T. Johnson, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT J. Edward Johnson, Director, Applied Science Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, John C. Stennis Space Center, MS William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Nicole R. Nason, National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator, U.S.DOT James Ray, Acting Administrator, Federal Highway Administrator, U.S.DOT James S. Simpson, Federal Transit Administrator, U.S.DOT Robert A. Sturgell, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of January 2008. *Membership as of May 2008.
OCR for page R3
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 4 Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation Matthew A. Coogan White River Junction, VT IN ASSOCIATION WITH MarketSense Consulting LLC Boston, MA Jacobs Consultancy Burlingame, CA Subject Areas Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2008 www.TRB.org
OCR for page R4
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 4 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 11-02/Task 2 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-0902 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-09941-7 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2008929051 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most © 2008 Transportation Research Board airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT PERMISSION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- Board's judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP purposes and resources of the National Research Council. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- completeness of the project reporting. sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America
OCR for page R5
OCR for page R6
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 4 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Editor ACRP PROJECT 11-02/TASK 2 PANEL Field of Special Projects Gene Hauck, SuperShuttle International, Scottsdale, AZ Joseph H. Hills, Tampa, FL Simone C. Johnson, Maryland Aviation Administration, BWI Airport, MD Alfred LaGasse, International Taxicab and Livery Association, Kensington, MD Ray A. Mundy, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, MO Michael Welch, JetBlue Airways, Hanover, MA Patrick Sullivan, FAA Liaison
OCR for page R7
FOREWORD By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation provides tools and information to assist airport managers in improving ground access to large airports. The dramatic increases in air travel, congestion near airports, and interest in improving access to airports make this research report very timely. This research project builds upon and updates the results of two previous research projects undertaken within the Transit Cooperative Research Program, which produced TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Trans- portation Access to Large Airports (2000) and TCRP Report 83: Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports (2002). ACRP Report 4: Ground Access to Major Airports by Public Transportation provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. Chapter 1 summarizes for airport managers the key elements in the creation of a six-step market-based strategy for improving the quality of public mode services at U.S. airports. This strategy focuses on the needs of the air traveler who uses airport ground access services. This traveler makes deci- sions that are affected by the amount of baggage being carried, the sense of apprehension about the reliability of the trip and arriving on time, the total trip costs, and a lack of knowl- edge about the non-home end of the trip. The market-based strategy was designed to support the development of public transportation services unique to the needs of the air- port and to the users of the airport. The balance of the report addresses the context for public transportation to major air- ports; explores the attributes of successful airport ground access systems; presents an airport-by-airport summary of air traveler ground access mode share by public transporta- tion services (i.e., rail, bus, and shared-ride vans) for major U.S., European, and Asian air- ports (modes excluded from this review include hotel and rental car vans, limousines, and charter buses); discusses integrated baggage and airline ticketing strategies; applies market research to planning public transportation services to airports; reviews strategies for improving airport landside ground transportation services, including addressing institu- tional challenges for implementing these strategies and identifying potential funding sources; describes ways to improve the public transportation mode share for airport employees; examines new and evolving information technology to bring airport ground access information and ticketing options to the traveler; and identifies opportunities for further research that tie back to the six-step process described in Chapter 1.
OCR for page R8
CONTENTS 1 Summary 15 Chapter 1 Six Steps in a Market-Based Strategy for Improving Airport Ground Access 16 Step 1: Establish the Public Policy Goals for Airport Ground Access 16 Define the Stakeholders and Get Them to the Table 16 Coordinate with the Regional Planning Process 18 Best Practices in the United States: Establishing the Process 18 Step 2: Undertake the Program of Data Gathering and System Monitoring 18 Data Collection for the Airport Ground Access Survey 20 Data Collection to Monitor the Performance of the System 21 Best Practices in the United States: Continuing Survey Programs 21 Step 3: Interpret the Markets and Their Relationship to Candidate Modes 21 Geographic Scale of the Airport Ground Access Markets 22 Density and Market Support Associated with Specific Modes 24 The Need for a Composite Approach 24 Best Practices in the United States: Examples of Market Types at U.S. Airports 25 Step 4: Design a Program of Services and Strategies for Airport Ground Access 25 Lessons Learned from Successful Systems 27 Summary: Designing to Deal with Revealed Attributes 28 Best Practices in the United States: Service Based on Markets 29 Step 5: Manage the Airport to Encourage Higher Occupancy Vehicle Use 29 Encouraging the Use of High-Occupancy Service 30 Learning from Recent U.S. Airport Designs 31 Considering Regulations to Encourage Higher Occupancy Mode Strategies 31 Best Practices in the United States: Management and Amenity 31 Step 6: Present Information about Ground Access Services to the Traveler 32 Building a Ground Transportation Information Strategy 32 Best Practices: Traveler Information 32 Conclusion 34 Chapter 2 The Context for Public Transportation to Major Airports 34 Understanding the Scale of Airport Ground Access 35 U.S. Airports and Their Public Mode Share 35 The Scale of the Public Mode Volumes at These Airports 36 What Has Happened over the Last Decade? 39 How Have the Transit-Oriented Airports "Bounced Back" from the Decrease in Air Traffic? 41 Will the Pattern of Air Travel Continue to Grow?
OCR for page R9
41 Understanding the Trips That Use Airports 41 Trip Purpose: Why Do Airline Passengers Travel? 44 National Patterns of Access to Airports and Terminals 45 Daily Public Mode Volumes to Airports 46 "Typical" Public Mode Volumes for Large U.S. Airports 46 Public Mode Volumes for 27 U.S. Airports 46 Implications for Choice of Ground Access Mode 48 Why Are Airports Concerned with Ground Access by Public Modes? 48 Ground Access Issues and the Regional Planning Process 50 Environmental Approvals in Europe 51 What's Next? 52 Chapter 3 Attributes of Successful Ground Access Systems 52 Understanding Successful Airport Ground Access Systems 53 Does Airport Size Explain Ridership? 54 Does Distance from Downtown Explain Ridership? 54 Does the Quality of the Airport Connection Explain Ridership? 55 Does Line-Haul Speed Explain High Ridership? 58 Is Higher Speed or Directness of Service More Important? 61 The Implications of Dedicated Premium Service 62 Service Attributes of Proposed Projects 62 Berlin Brandenburg Airport 63 Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport 63 Chicago Midway and O'Hare Airports 64 New York JFK Airport 64 Summing It Up 65 Desired Attributes of Rail Service to U.S. Airports 65 Desired Attributes of Van and Bus Service to U.S. Airports 67 What's Next? 68 Chapter 4 Public Transportation Market Share by Airport 68 Part 1: Best Practices at U.S. Airports 69 Tier 1 70 San Francisco (23% Market Share) 71 New York JFK (19% Market Share) 71 Boston (18% Market Share) 73 Reagan Washington National (17% Market Share) 73 Oakland (15% Market Share) 74 New Orleans (15% Market Share) 75 Newark (14% Market Share) 75 Atlanta (14% Market Share) 76 Denver (14% Market Share) 77 Los Angeles (13% Market Share) 78 Baltimore/Washington (12% Market Share) 79 Chicago O'Hare (12% Market Share) 80 Las Vegas (12% Market Share) 80 Tier 2 81 Orlando (11% Market Share) 81 Seattle (11% Market Share) 82 Portland (10% Market Share)
OCR for page R10
82 Chicago Midway (9% Market Share) 83 Phoenix (9% Market Share) 83 San Diego (9% Market Share) 84 Indianapolis (9% Market Share) 84 Washington Dulles (8% Market Share) 85 New York LaGuardia (8% Market Share) 86 Philadelphia (7% Market Share) 87 Tampa (7% Market Share) 87 Dallas/Fort Worth (6% Market Share) 88 St. Louis (6% Market Share) 88 Cleveland (6% Market Share) 89 Other Airports of Interest 89 Part 2: Best Practices at European and Asian Airports 91 Oslo (64% Market Share) 92 Hong Kong (63% Market Share) 93 Narita (59% Market Share) 94 Shanghai (51% Market Share) 94 Zurich (47% Market Share) 95 Vienna (41% Market Share) 96 London Stansted (40% Market Share) 97 Paris Charles de Gaulle (40% Market Share) 98 Amsterdam (37% Market Share) 99 Copenhagen (37% Market Share) 99 Munich (36% Market Share) 100 London Heathrow (36% Market Share) 101 Stockholm (34% Market Share) 102 Frankfurt (33% Market Share) 103 London Gatwick (31% Market Share) 103 Geneva (28% Market Share) 104 Brussels (26% Market Share) 105 Paris Orly (26% Market Share) 105 Düsseldorf (22% Market Share) 107 Chapter 5 Integrated Baggage and Ticketing Strategies 107 Part 1: Baggage Strategies for Local Originating Passengers 108 The Importance of Baggage-Handling Strategies 109 A Case Study in Baggage Check-in at a Downtown Terminal 112 Status of Other Downtown Check-in Terminals 117 Near-Airport Check-in Locations 119 Lessons Learned: Off-Site Airport Check-in Centers 119 Summary 119 Part 2: Integration of Ticketing and Baggage with Longer Distance Systems 120 Integration with National Systems: The GAO Study 122 Why Integrate an Airport with Longer Distance Ground Services? 125 Part 3: Evolving Strategies for Integrated Ticketing and Baggage 126 Las Vegas Strategies for Integration of Modal Services 127 Los Angeles International Airport to Union Station 128 Newark Liberty International Airport Rail Station: A Case Study 131 Lessons Learned: Integration with National Systems 132 Documentation of Examples of Integrated Services
OCR for page R11
135 Chapter 6 Applying Market Research to Airport Ground Access 135 The Role of Market Research 135 Characteristics of the Airport Ground Access Market 136 Geographic Distribution of Ground Access Trips 136 Demographic Characteristics of Air Travelers 138 Airport Ground Access Market Research 138 Step 1: Decide What Information to Collect 139 Step 2: Select a Data Collection Method 141 Step 3: Determine the Sampling Frame and Sampling Method 142 Step 4: Develop the Questionnaire 142 Step 5: Summarize and Analyze the Results 143 Use of Market Research Information 143 Air Traveler Trip-End Densities Associated with Ground Transportation Markets 145 The Importance of Primary Ground Transportation Markets 145 The Geography of Public Ground Transportation to Airports 147 A Hierarchy of Markets for Public Ground Transportation Services 148 Influence of Geography and Demographics on Ground Transportation Markets 148 Variation by Demographic Segment: Total Airport Markets 149 Variation by Demographic Segment: Washington, D.C. 151 Applying the Four Market Segments: Looking for the Factor of Familiarity 152 Conclusion 153 Chapter 7 Managing the Airport Landside System 153 The Need to Manage Services 154 Airport Ground Transportation Management Strategies 154 Airport Fees 154 Measures to Encourage Use of Public Transportation 156 Automated Traffic Monitoring and Management Programs 157 Business Arrangements at Airports to Improve Service to the Traveling Public 157 Open Access 158 Exclusive and Semi-Exclusive Concessions Agreements 158 Balancing Supply and Demand 159 Third-Party Management Contracts 159 Regulatory Considerations for the Introduction of New Services 159 Challenges of Introducing New Services 160 Competition and Enforcement 161 Factors Governing Airport Financial Operations 161 Authorizing Legislation 161 Bond Indenture 162 Airline Agreement 163 Concession Agreements 163 Sources of Funding 164 Federal Funding and Financial Oversight of Airports and Airport Access Projects 167 Environmental Implications of Federal Funding for Airport Access Projects
OCR for page R12
168 Chapter 8 Improving Public Transportation Mode Share for Employees 168 The Objective and the Challenge 168 Factors that Influence Employee Use of Public Transportation 169 Transit Service Characteristics 171 Employee Characteristics 173 Key Considerations for Improving Employee Public Transportation Mode Share 173 Comparative Travel Time of Transit and Automobile 173 Comparative Comfort of Transit and Automobile 174 Extent and Adequacy of the Transit Service Area 174 Proximity and Accessibility of Transit Service at Both Trip Ends 174 Availability, Cost, and Convenience of Parking at the Work Site 175 Extent and Adequacy of Transit Service Hours 176 Perceived Safety of Transit, Particularly at Night 176 Airport Employee Market Segments 176 Flight Crew 176 Non-Flight Crew 177 Chapter 9 Getting Ground Access Information to the Traveler 177 Getting Information about Ground Access 178 How U.S. Airport Websites Cover Ground Access 178 Ground Access Information on the San Francisco Airport Website 181 Ground Access Information on the Portland (Oregon) Airport Website 182 Ground Access Information on the Boston Airport Website 183 Ground Access Information on the New York JFK Airport Website 185 Ground Access Information on the Atlanta Airport Website 186 How European and Asian Airport Websites Cover Ground Access 186 Ground Access Information on the Amsterdam Airport Website 188 Ground Access Planning on the Narita Airport Website 190 Ground Access Information on the London Heathrow Airport Website 191 Ground Access Information on the Zurich Airport Website 192 The Baltimore/Washington International Airport Prototype Ground Access Module 193 Passenger Information Provided by the Airport 193 Passenger Information Provided by Other Agencies 195 Conclusions 196 Chapter 10 Further Research 196 Step 1: Establish the Public Policy Goals for Airport Ground Access 196 Step 2: Undertake the Program for Data Gathering and System Monitoring 197 Step 3: Understand the Markets Revealed and Their Relationship to Candidate Solutions 197 Step 4: Design a Program of Services and Strategies for Airport Ground Access 197 Step 5: Manage the Airport to Encourage Higher Occupancy 198 Step 6: Present the Ground Access Services to the Traveler 199 References 201 Appendix Abbreviations and Acronyms