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13 TABLE 10 FACILITIES OR INFRASTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS IMPLEMENTED Percentage of Respondents Citing a Specific Type of Types of Infrastructure Modification Facilities/Infrastructure (for all, and for individual types of HC buses)* Modifications All Articulated Double-Deck 45-ft Maintenance Shops 72% 79% 33% 50% Bus Stop 50% 62% 0 21% Terminals/Loops 34% 46% 0 0 Wash Facilities 22% 21% 33% 14% On-Street Parking 19% 25% 0 0 Fueling Facilities 19% 21% 0 14% Roadway 6% 4% 33% 0 Other 3% 14% 33% 0 No. of HC Type Fleets 32 24 3 14 Source: Transit agency survey responses. *Respondents could cite more than one type of facility/infrastructure modification that was implemented when HC buses were deployed; therefore, the totals do not add up to 100%. Table reports the percentage of all respondents in each category that cited a given type of modification that was carried out. This provides a relative weighting for each type of modification, first for all HC buses as a whole, and then broken down according to each type of HC bus operated by respondents. overhead obstructions along a route, such as low tree limbs adjustable in spacing), and modifications to the exhaust vent or overhead cables; modification to door openings; fuel is- system to accommodate the 60-ft three-axle vehicles. land modifications; brush wash upgrades; purchase of portable lifts; and the purchase of movable stairs with a work Agencies cited the need to revise their yard-parking con- platform to access the roof of the buses, which are approxi- figuration or to increase their storage areas to accommodate mately 14 ft above ground level. their articulated buses. The modifications to the wash facili- ties included the programming of the bus wash cycle for a One respondent indicated that modification costs were as longer travel path and increasing the length of the steam follows: cleaning bay. The reported modifications to the fueling facil- ities included the re-alignment of fueling hoses, addition of Modification to door openings to 14 ft 8 in.--$162,000. extra fueling hoses, and changes to vacuum hoses to accom- Fuel island modifications--$10,000 (included in the modate the articulated buses. previous expenditure). Paint booth modifications--$68,000. Agencies using 45-ft buses reported fewer modifica- Brush wash upgrades--$308,286. tions to facilities or infrastructure, primarily the addition of Portable lifts--$198,000. wheelchair-boarding pads at bus stops. Those agencies using articulated buses cited modifica- LOCAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS tions that were related to the longer length of the vehicle. Modifications reported for bus stops included bus bays Nine of the transit agencies reported service restrictions for lengthened, street furniture moved to accommodate the three their HC buses. Table 11 summarizes the reported restric- doors, the installation of new bus stop pads (59 ft in length) tions. Restrictions included limits on bus speed and allowance to accommodate all doors, and the addition of curb space for of standees. Some double-deck buses were not used in high bus layovers. winds. As would be expected, the lengthening of a bus stop may ACTIONS TAKEN TO REDUCE DWELL TIME result in the removal of some on-street parking. The terminal and loops modifications reported were also related to the ve- All things being equal, the introduction of HC buses will in- hicles' increased length, and included the lengthening of bus crease dwell time at bus stops because of the greater number bays, the increase in length of layover positions, and modi- of passengers alighting and boarding. The increased dwell fied loading gates. time is further exacerbated if all boarding passengers have to enter through the front door for purposes of fare control by Almost 70% of the respondents using articulated buses the operator. Some transit agencies have therefore taken ac- reported some modifications to their maintenance facilities, tions to reduce dwell time at stops for their HC buses. A sum- including the lengthening bays and inspection pits, installa- mary of the categories of actions taken is given in Table 12. tion of three-axle lift sets and in-ground three-post lifts (some Table 13 lists the specific actions taken by category.

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14 TABLE 11 SUMMARY OF LOCAL SERVICE RESTRICTIONS ON USE OF HC BUSES REPORTED Type of HC Bus Local Service Restriction Articulated Passenger loads restricted to 150% seated capacity Speed limited to 55 mph and interlining with other routes was eliminated Used only on routes where bus stops and roadway could accommodate Double-Deck No standees allowed on upper deck Certain routes are restricted because of vertical clearance issues Do not use during high winds 45-ft No standees allowed on coaches on roadways (some transit agencies reported allowing standees on their coaches) Operator training for 45-ft coaches, in particular for use of tag wheels during winter operations 45-ft coaches not used on routes that regularly carry persons in wheelchairs Not allowed on trunk or local lines. 45-ft buses are allowed on supplemental services Source: Transit agency survey responses. TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF THE TYPES OF ACTIONS TAKEN TO IMPROVE DWELL TIME Percentage of Respondents Citing a Specific Type of Actions Taken to Reduce Dwell Action to Reduce Dwell Time Times at Stops (for all, and for individual types of HC buses)* All Articulated Double-Deck 45-ft Fare Collection Procedures 38% 33% 33% 21% Wheelchair Accommodations 28% 29% 33% 7% Bus Stop Design/Signage 19% 17% 33% 7% Changes to Policies/Procedures 3% 4% 0 0 Other 9% 4% 67% 0 Total No. Types of Action Taken 32 24 3 14 Source: Transit agency survey responses. *Respondents could cite more than one type of action taken to reduce dwell time at stops; therefore, totals do not add up to 100%. Table reports the percentage of all respondents in each category that cited a given type of dwell-time reduction action. Some respondents use two types of HC buses. This provides a relative weighting for each type of action, first for all HC buses as a whole, and then broken down according to each type of HC bus operated by respondents. TABLE 13 ACTIONS TAKEN BY CATEGORY TO IMPROVE DWELL TIME Type of Action Actions Taken Bus Stop Used three doors Design/Signage Information tubes were installed on the Las Vegas Strip Better signage for customer information Larger stop platform area Variable message sign at stop indicating departure time of next bus, which encourages passengers to prepare and line up for approaching bus Fare Collection Encourage use of pre-paid fare media Procedures Outbound PM Express and regional routes pay on exiting Inbound pay on boarding--Outbound pay upon exiting (all routes) Introduction of "proof of payment" to encourage all door boarding Ticket vending machines at stops to sell tickets and day passes Off-board fare collection--boarding through all doors Introduction of smart card system that helped to speed boarding All campus routes are "open" (university pass program)) Wheelchair Low-floor buses to facilitate easier and faster boarding Accommodations Wheelchair strap program that secures straps faster Bus stop modification to accommodate articulated door spacing New articulated bus board wheelchairs via ramp in second door Operator training Changes to Honor system for proof of payment. Security personnel conduct Policies/Procedures random checks to validate fares. Violation fee increased steadily, now at $150 Canadian. Other On double-deck buses a second stairway will be added to speed up boarding and alighting. Source: Transit agency survey responses.