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70 APPENDIX C Principal Federal Legislation Related to Cooperative Technology Transfer Since 1980, a series of laws have been enacted to promote federal and civilian partnerships and to facilitate the transfer of technology between sectors. Among the most notable pieces of legislation have been the following: StevensonWydler Technology Innovation Act (1980). Required federal laboratories to facilitate the transfer of fed- erally owned and originated technology to state and local governments and to the private sector. BayhDole University and Small Business Patent Act (1980). Permitted government grantees and contractors to retain title to federally funded inventions and encouraged universities to license inventions to industry. The act is designed to foster interactions between academia and the business community. Small Business Innovation Development Act (1982). Established the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Pro- gram within the major federal R&D agencies to increase government funding of research with commercialization poten- tial within small high technology companies. National Cooperative Research Act (1984). Encouraged U.S. firms to collaborate on generic, precompetitive research by establishing a rule of reason for evaluating the antitrust implications of research joint ventures. The act was amended in 1993 by the National Cooperative Research and Production Act, which let companies collaborate on production as well as research activities. Federal Technology Transfer Act (1986). Amended the StevensonWydler Technology Innovation Act to authorize Cooperative Research and Development Agreements between federal laboratories and other entities, including state agencies. Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (1988). Established the Competitiveness Policy Council to develop recom- mendations for national strategies and specific policies to enhance industrial competitiveness. The act created the Advanced Technology Program and the Manufacturing Technology Centers within National Institute of Standards and Technology to help U.S. companies become more competitive. National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act (1989). Amended the StevensonWydler Act to allow govern- ment-owned, contractor-operated laboratories to enter into cooperative R&D agreements. National Cooperative Research and Production Act (1993). Relaxed restrictions on cooperative production activities, enabling research joint venture participants to work together in the application of technologies they jointly acquire. Science & Engineering Indicators 2000, Chapter 2, U.S. and International Research and Development: Funds and Alliances, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., 20036 [Online]. Available: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind00/start.htm.