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8 context also includes the complex process of change, in Appendix A. The Technology Transfer Toolbox Scoping a comprehensive achievement dealing with cultural Study was done concurrently with this synthesis. Data from as well as technical issues. that study were available for this synthesis. The Technology Transfer Toolbox Scoping Study describes tools that are needed in the transportation community to facilitate the per- LITERATURE AND DATA SOURCES formance of technology transfer. The work done on that study provided information that was particularly relevant for There were three major sources of data used to develop this the synthesis. Academic researchers, state DOT research synthesis: surveys, interviews, and a literature review. The managers, and FHWA resource center and division office most important of these sources was a survey that was sent staff involved with technology transfer were interviewed in to AASHTO Research Advisory Committee (RAC) mem- the course of that study. Additionally, the TRB Committee bers. A second very similar survey was sent to LTAP and on Technology Transfer and the FHWA Office of Profes- TTAP Assistance Programs' centers. Completed surveys were sional Development, both sponsors of the Technology Trans- received from 39 research units (38 states and one Canadian fer Toolbox Scoping Study, provided useful information for province) and 23 LTAP/TTAP centers. Data from the survey the synthesis. are generally expressed as the number of occurrences, per- cent of total responses, or as an average value of responses To give a more complete picture of technology transfer for the particular survey element. The surveys are included in the transportation community, information about tech- as Appendix A. nology transfer processes in private organizations was re- viewed for the synthesis. These reviews and the very large In total, there are 51 LTAP centers (50 states and Puerto volume of published material on academic technology trans- Rico) and 7 TTAP centers. The response rate for the survey fer provided a perspective of another aspect of technology from LTAP/TTAP centers was 40%. More responses were transfer--patents, intellectual property ownership, and/or desirable from the centers; however, the information received commercialization--perhaps precursors to future public- was from a representative sample of centers including 2 TTAP sector practices. centers, 6 LTAP centers that have operations within the DOT, 23 LTAP centers funded by the DOT but operated by Government publications and business management liter- others, and 1 LTAP center that operates within the DOT as ature provided substantial background information on the well as having others outside the agency operating the pro- manner in which technology transfer is conducted in both the gram. The response rate from the state DOTs was 75%, and public and private sectors. EBSCOhost® and ProQuest® one response was received from the Quebec Ministry of databases were the primary sources for business literature. Transportation. A list of respondent organizations is included The Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) in Appendix B. database and the TRB Library were particularly significant sources of information about transportation technology To augment data from these surveys, interviews were con- transfer activity both on the federal and state level. In addi- ducted with a number of research managers and LTAP/TTAP tion, TLCat, the National Transportation Library Trans- center directors. Those contributing to the synthesis are listed portation Library Catalog (comprised of electronic document in Appendix B. references), provided important references for this work. Because of the nature of technology transfer, much informa- The survey for both the state DOTs and LTAP/TTAP tion is directly available on the World Wide Web. References centers included four focus areas. Initially, the questions and the bibliography note such availability. centered on general information about the technology trans- fer and implementation activities carried out by the respon- Other sources of information were the state DOT re- dent's agency, including program size, structure, management, search unit peer exchange meetings and a report based on and funding. Three other focus areas, successes, challenges, 51 state DOT research unit's exchanges (50 states and the and needs were included in the questioning. Respondents District of Columbia). The report, "Peer Exchange: A Value were asked to provide reasons for successes, to detail spe- Added Program Management Tool" (Harder 2001), is a syn- cific challenges to technology transfer or implementation of thesis of the concepts, methods, and recommendations from research results, and to discuss what was done to mitigate research peers having participated in research, develop- the challenges. The surveys also requested that respondents ment, and technology peer exchanges throughout the United identify needs for improvements in technology transfer States. Implementation of research results, including the processes. dissemination of research results, marketing, and commu- nications are among the various topics considered by the In addition to the formal surveys distributed, a short peer exchanges. e-mail survey was sent to RAC members in conjunction with a related project, "Scoping Study for a Technology In addition, the synthesis study project panel provided key Transfer Toolbox" (Harder 2003a). This survey is included information. The foundational strategies and perspectives on