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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises The G&T and TYPES OF EXERCISES FEMA identify seven types of The G&T's HSEEP identifies seven distinct types of exercises arrayed along a continuum designed exercises: to promote a comprehensive preparedness capability. This typology is modified from FEMA's earlier seminars, curriculum, which combined seminars and workshops into a single category and which did not include workshops, games. A visual representation of the HSEEP approach is presented in Figure 3. tabletops, games, drills, functional exercises, and Full-Scale Exercises full-scale Functional Exercises exercises. Each of these exercise Drills types should be Games C a p a b ilit y conducted at least once over the Tabletops 3-year exercise Workshops cycle. Seminars Planning/Training DiscussionBased Exercises OperationsBased Exercises FIGURE 3 PROGRESSIVE EXERCISE CONTINUUM The relationships among these increasingly complex types of exercises offer a "building block" approach to emergency readiness. This approach ensures successful progression in exercise design, complex- ity, and execution and allows for the appropriate training and preparation to occur in the community con- ducting the exercise. Although each exercise type identified in Figure 3 can be executed as a single activity, greater benefit can be achieved through a progressive program that exposes participants to gradually increasing levels of complexity. Implementation of such a program allows the collective com- munity to achieve and maintain competency in executing transportation and local emergency response plans. DISCUSSION-BASED AND OPERATIONS-BASED EXERCISE CATEGORIES As a critical element of the progressive exercise program, the seven types of exercises identified in Figure 3 are divided into two distinct categories. Discussion-based Discussion-based exercises are normally the starting point in the building block approach to the exercises include progressive exercise cycle. Discussion-based exercises include seminars, workshops, tabletops seminars, and games. The types of exercises typically focus on existing plans, policies, mutual aid agree- workshops, ments, and procedures. Thus, they are effective tools for familiarizing agencies and personnel with tabletops, and current or expected response capabilities. They may also provide a forum for developing new plans games. and procedures. These types of exercises tend to focus on policy-oriented issues. In conducting Operations-based discussion-based exercises, facilitators and/or presenters usually lead the discussions, helping to exercises include keep participants on track and ensure that objectives are met. drills, functional exercises, and Operations-based exercises represent the next stage in the exercise cycle. Operations-based full-scale exercises include drills, functional exercises, and full-scale exercises. These exercises are used to exercises. validate the plans, policies, agreements, and procedures solidified in discussion-based exercises. 10