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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises ATTACHMENT 6 TRANSPORTATION INCIDENT RESPONSE TYPOLOGY 158

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Transportation Incident Response Typology Incident Examples Duration Command and Coordination Structure Classification of Disruption Minor traffic incident On-scene resources, such as the incident Traffic crash command system (ICS) and person-to- Minor load spill person communication, are typically Level I: Vehicle fire 0-2 hours sufficient to manage the incident. ICS Minor Minor train or bus (in most single command is typically all that is Incidents accident cases) required. Transportation front-line Minor employee personnel and the transportation accident with injuries supervisor will support the emergency responder incident commander in resolving the incident. Train derailment On-scene resources, which may be Major bus/rail transit supplemented by additional resources accident through ICS single command, are used to Level II: Major truck accident 2-8 hours resolve the incident. The main resource is Extended Multivehicle crash (in most person-to-person communication at the Incidents Hazmat spills cases) scene, but agency-to-agency Accidents with communication may be necessary (i.e., fatalities and injuries transportation dispatch/management Minor earthquakes, center to emergency responder dispatch landslides center). The transportation incident management system will be activated, and a transportation incident commander will be assigned. The transportation emergency operations center may be activated. If the incident escalates, unified command may be established and the local emergency operations center may be activated. (continued) 159

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises (Continued) Incident Examples Duration Command and Coordination Structure Classification of Disruption Train crash These incidents require activation of ICS Airplane crash in the field (possibly unified command) Level III: Hazmat incident and activation of the local emergency Major Multivehicle accident operations center (EOC). The Incidents Tunnel fire 8-24 transportation agency will activate its Infrastructure hours transportation incident management collapse (in most system in the field, including designation Accidents with cases) of a transportation incident commander multiple and transportation command post. The fatalities/injuries transportation emergency operations Accident with mass center will be activated. Communications casualties will be managed through both person-to- Port/airport incidents person communication (in the field) and Industrial accidents agency-to-agency communication Critical system (between the transportation and local failure emergency operations center and the Tornados, flash transportation dispatch/management floods, electrical center and emergency responder dispatch storms, and smaller centers). A transportation liaison will be wildfires assigned to the local emergency Workplace operations center. violence/strike Terrorist attack/WMD 24+ hours These events trigger activation of the or credible threat of (in most National Response Plan. Federal resources Level IV: such attack cases) will be integrated into the command and Incidents of Natural disasters coordination structure established for National resulting in Level III events at the regional, state, Significance declaration of and national level. Unified area command Presidential may be established by the responders in emergency the field to facilitate the integration of Events that require federal resources into the local/regional involvement of more response activity. than one federal department or agency 160

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Example of Level III Incident Classification for Elements of Local and Transit Agency Response 161

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises State DOT/Traffic Management Center Emergency Response Activities Awareness Coordinate Emergency Develop Mission Regional Management Statement and Response Plans Life Cycle Phases Operational and Evacuation Concept Plans Prior to Event Prevention Public Information Monitor Alert Evacuation Campaign Levels Preparedness Preparedness Event Occurs Operational Notification/ Situation Verification Objectives & Detection Assessment Strategies Response Disaster Emergency Response Evacuation Coordinate Field Response Evacuation Traffic Public Information Management Coordinate Evacuation Support for Strategy Scene Protection Area Traffic Emergency & Traffic Control Control Strategies Responders Monitor Evacuation Incident Management on Routes Event Stabilization Evacuation Resource Sharing Recovery Evacuation Re- Entry Critical Services Manage Area Traffic Dissipation Restoration Transportation 162

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Disaster Response Activities Representative Activities Performed by Transportation Management Centers and Function State and Local Transportation Organizations Support the development/revision of the following: transportation-related components of local, regional, and state emergency operations plans (EOPs) and transportation annexes; transportation-related components of local/regional hazard-specific plans; Coordinate Mutual aid and other support agreements with appropriate local and state agencies Response Plans to address transportation resources and concerns; and Memoranda of understanding and letters of agreement with local public safety agencies documenting transportation roles and responsibilities in the incident command system (ICS) and community emergency operations center (EOC). Improve access to alerting systems and information regarding terrorism threat levels. Improve access to alerting systems for natural disasters. Develop and implement protective measures in times of heightened threat or natural disaster, which include early notification of transportation decision-makers; early activation of key traffic control strategies; staging of predeployed resources throughout the area; and direct assignment of transportation managers and others with authority to Monitor Alert make decisions at strategic locations. Levels Support the rapid and coordinated identification of mobilization sites, staging areas, and traffic control plans, integrated with threat assessment and scene security requirements. Support the rapid and coordinated consideration of traffic routing alternatives and regionwide coordination regarding traffic management. Update contact and on-call systems, thereby ensuring 24/7 access to transportation decision-makers at both the strategic (management) and the tactical (field) levels. Use surveillance systems to detect indicators of a potential emergency, an emergency that is occurring, or an emergency that has occurred. Collaborate with and alert other agencies to recognize an emergency event in progress Detect and that may affect the regional transportation system. Verify Establish manual or automated information sharing with local emergency Emergencies communications centers (ECCs)/911 centers. Collaborate with field personnel and equipment to verify that an emergency event is occurring or has occurred, and communicate relevant information to all responding agencies. Improve operational availability of critical management, information, communications, Assess and control systems in potential disaster scenarios. Infrastructure Clarify access priority for engineers and other transportation field personnel who must Status assess infrastructure, equipment, and facilities located at or nearby the scene. Provide assistance in determining any potential hazards at the scene. 163

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Disaster Response Activities Representative Activities Performed by Transportation Management Centers and Function State and Local Transportation Organizations As appropriate/requested, provide field support for emergency responders at the scene, integrated through the ICS and communicated and coordinated with the traffic management center. Address emergency responder transportation needs and scene access support and staging requirements. Identify available transportation equipment, facilities, personnel, devices, and information to support emergency response. Assign transportation agency resources to move materials, personnel, and supplies as requested by responders. Track resource status. If appropriate, support hazardous materials containment response and damage assessment, using available capabilities coordinated with on-scene field response through the ICS. Attend regular briefings at incident site on situation, incident action plan, response objectives, and strategy, with full opportunity for transportation contributions and identification of resources and capabilities to support the response effort and action plan. Perform damage assessment duties for affected transportation system elements. Coordinate Make decisions regarding closures, restrictions, and priority repairs. Response Coordinate assessments and decisions made regarding the operational capabilities of the transportation system with affected parties (emergency responders, local government, etc.) Initiate priority clean-up, repair, and restoration activities, including the use of contractors and emergency procurement authorities. Review/terminate existing work zone closures as necessary. Obtain incident status briefings, and anticipate changing conditions (wind direction, weather, plume direction, etc.) Based on all available information, develop detours and diversions (as necessary) to direct traffic safely away from the affected area and/or damaged infrastructure. Initiate traffic management operations and control strategies. Provide public information/traveler alerts on the status of the transportation system. Assign personnel to local/regional and state emergency operations centers to collaborate with public safety agencies and other agencies involved in disaster response and recovery efforts. Support communications between transportation personnel and their families/friends. Coordinate roadway clearance activities. Remove and/or assist in debris removal and disposal, as appropriate, to provide emergency access to disaster areas or to assist in eliminating health and safety problems associated with debris. Prioritize recovery operations, and perform emergency repairs in the disaster area. Collaborate with other jurisdictions that are managing, supporting, or being impacted by the repair activities. Assist in the design and implementation of alternate transportation services, such as transit systems, to temporarily replace transport capacity that is lost because of disaster Restore Critical damage. Services Collaborate with efforts to restore utilities. Issue permits required to repair/restore utility lines or pipes. Provide needed equipment and/or technical assistance to support restoration of critical public works. Support event stabilization, traffic demand, and estimated traffic capacity at the time of stabilization. Support decontamination (short-term and mid-term), if necessary, using hazardous materials contractors and clean-up crews. Initiate commercial mode shifts and diversions (as appropriate). 164

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Disaster Response Activities Representative Activities Performed by Transportation Management Centers and Function State and Local Transportation Organizations Monitor and control transportation systems and infrastructure, and coordinate transportation activities with other agencies (local, state, and federal). Monitor and coordinate the closure of high-risk facilities such as bridges, tunnels, or flood- and landslide-prone sections of roadway. Assist state and local government entities in determining the most viable available transportation networks to, from, and within the disaster area, and regulate the use of those networks for the movement of people, equipment, supplies, records, and so forth. Establish and manage emergency access for transport of emergency resources, including traffic control points, barricade plans, and potential one-way/reverse-lane operations. Manage Area Provide any highway clearances and waivers required to expedite the transportation of Transportation high-priority materials and the evacuation of personnel during periods of declared emergencies. Manage unexpected capacity reduction on selected routes. Share disaster response and evacuation information among all allied agencies, including transportation agencies (e.g., traffic operations, maintenance, and transit) and nontransportation agencies (e.g., public safety and emergency management). Coordinate traffic control strategies supporting emergency response across jurisdictions. Coordinate transit service changes across jurisdictions. Provide information on road closures, infrastructure damage, debris removal, and restoration activities related to highway systems and facilities. Provide real-time traffic information and traffic reports for roads within the affected area or for roads leading into the area. Provide Traveler Provide updated transit service information for the disaster area. Information Assign appropriate personnel at key disaster sites to oversee operations and to provide consistent, verified public information to emergency management agencies, public information officers, and the media. Evacuation Coordination Activities Representative Activities Performed by Transportation Management Centers and Function State and Local Transportation Organizations Develop evacuation plans at the county, state, and multistate levels. Data must be collected and archived to develop these plans and to ensure the validation of the models used in developing the plans. The data shall include items such as traffic flow, speed, occupancy, traveler behavior, and a log of events. When possible, coordinate evacuation routes across jurisdictional boundaries. Improve management of the evacuation process through investigation of strategies that reduce transportation demand, including identifying shelters near evacuation origins, increasing the use of transit, and evacuating in shifts rather than all at once. Examine and modify evacuation route designs if necessary to accommodate evacuation management strategies. For example, reversible lane operations and the use of shoulders Evacuation as an additional lane might require modifications to interchange designs. Planning For situations where evacuation is not possible, develop plans to reconfigure the Support transportation system to manage the immediate transport of critical supplies to support shelter-in-place strategies. Establish policies, controls, and interfaces that support the lifting of toll and transit fees during evacuations. Develop evacuation plans that provide alternative routing for the possibility that a terrorist attack has rendered critical infrastructure or a quarantined area unavailable for evacuation. Provide evacuation planning for high-visibility events (e.g., Olympics) where there may be a great influx of visitors not normally accounted for in disaster evacuation scenarios. Provide for evacuation contingencies with respect to multiple and/or clustered disasters impacting evacuation in a relatively short timeframe. Reduce the time required for implementation and set-up of various evacuation strategies through predeployment of equipment and personnel. Plan for the evacuation of those with special needs. This includes elderly people and Evacuation people with disabilities, as well as hospitals and other institutions with resident Preparedness populations. Transit plays a critical and unique role in meeting this need. Share current and forecast evacuation information with transportation, emergency management, law enforcement, and other allied agencies at the county, multicounty, and multistate levels. Provide a comprehensive public information strategy. Coordinate evacuation public information with emergency management, transportation, and other allied agencies so that consistent, accurate information is provided to evacuees. Provide real-time information to evacuees regarding The services available at the evacuation destinations and along the evacuation Evacuation routes; Traveler The evacuation route conditions, such as incidents, road closures, lane closures, Information weather, expected travel time to destinations, route to destinations, and availability of alternative routes; Conditions in the evacuees' home counties; Available transit services supporting evacuation; and Alternative evacuation destinations (for evacuees who request this information). 165

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Evacuation Coordination Activities Representative Activities Performed by Transportation Management Centers and Function State and Local Transportation Organizations Efficiently use the available capacity to reduce the potentials for operational failures during evacuation. For example, review and terminate work zone closures where possible along the evacuation routes to maximize the capacity of these routes. Use transit services to the extent possible to optimize the use of available capacity. Operational failures can cause gridlock, long hours of delays, vehicle breakdowns, frustrated travelers, and significant risks to the evacuees. Improve management of the local streets that provide access to and from evacuation routes. The capacity of these streets should be increased and efficiently used to prevent creating bottlenecks at the access points. Improve the efficiency of detecting, responding to, and clearing incidents on evacuation routes. The drop in evacuation route capacities due to incidents could result in the failure of the evacuation process, even if the analysis performed during evacuation planning indicates that the routes can accommodate the traffic in nonincident conditions. Improve the warning and preparation information provided to evacuation destinations. Evacuee traffic information can be used by transportation management at the destination Evacuation to preconfigure the systems to anticipate and better handle the increased demand. Traffic Management Provide shelter-in-place information, and use transportation agency resources to expedite relief to the endangered population in cases where evacuation is not possible because little or no warning is provided and/or because transportation agency resources are limited or severely impacted. Maintain emergency service access to the disaster area and to the evacuation routes themselves by providing for and managing emergency service access routes in the opposite direction and/or across the major evacuation routes where necessary. Improve management of evacuation termination under emergency circumstances. This includes decision support to determine when to terminate an evacuation, communication of salient emergency public information to motorists, and roadway management (including interchange shutdown, traffic diversion, and the opening of "refuges of last resort" or other safe havens). Ensure the efficient and safe reentry of the evacuees to their counties. This includes preventing unauthorized people from entering a disaster area, clearing dangerous debris, and restoring electricity. The reentry decisions must balance safety and security with the public's desire to return home. Establish an effective information-sharing service that keeps all agencies in all affected jurisdictions appraised of the evacuation plan and evacuation status. If possible, coordinate resource requests and status/tracking through the same Evacuation information-sharing capability. Resource Ensure that resource requirements are accurately forecast based on the evacuation plans Sharing and that the necessary resources are located, shared between agencies if necessary, and deployed at the right locations at the right times. Make sure to have available the current status of all resources deployed to support the evacuation. 166

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Public Transportation Emergency Response Activities REPORT THE INCIDENT PROTECT DEBRIEF PROVIDE PERSONNEL AND BRIEFINGS NOTIFY AND REPORT INCIDENT EQUIPMENT COMMAND EVALUATE NOTIFY EVACUATE MANAGE RESTORE THE DISPATCH PEOPLE THE THE INCIDENT RESPONDERS EMERGENCY SERVICE NOTIFY COMBAT EMERGENCY FIRE RESPONDERS HAZMAT CHEM/BIO 911 REPORTS PROVIDE TRANSPORT MEDICAL VICTIMS TO TREATMENT MEDICAL FACILITIES

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Emergency Exercises for Assessing Transportation Activities Transportation Emergency Activity Can Best Be Assessed Using This Type of Emergency Exercise Planning and Response Seminar Workshop Tabletop Game Drill Functional Full- Activities Exercise Scale Exercise Develop Mission Statement and X X X Operational Concept for Transportation Agency Emergency Management Coordinate Local/Regional/State X X X Response Plans and Evacuation Plans Develop Public Information X X X Dissemination Strategies for Range of Conditions/Events Develop System to Monitor Threat X X X X Levels (Weather and Security) Develop Transportation Emergency X X X Operations Plans and Procedures Develop Transportation Training to X X X X Support Plans and Procedures Detect Events X X X X X Verify Events X X X X X Notify the Appropriate X X X X X People/Organizations Assess Situations X X X X X Evacuate Passengers and Facilities X X X Manage Casualties X X Protect Property/Equipment X X X Evaluate/Combat Dangers at X X Incident Scene Develop Operations Objectives and X X X X X Strategies Integrate with Local/Regional X X X X X Incident Management System Coordinate Transportation Field X X X X X Response Protect Scene and Control Traffic X X X Provide Support for Emergency X X X X X X X Responders Develop Area Traffic Control X X X X Strategies Manage Evacuation Traffic X X X X Coordinate and Monitor Evacuation X X X X Provide Incident Management of X X X X Evacuation Routes Stabilize Events X X Restore Critical Services X X Facilitate Traffic/Evacuation X X X X Re-Entry Manage Area Transportation X X X Dissipate Traffic X X X Restore Transportation Service X X X X 168