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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises 1.0 INTRODUCTION Transportation professionals at all levels of their agencies and in all types of communities are now work- ing to prevent and respond to new threats to public safety. These professionals are engaged in plan- ning and training; development of procedures; evaluation of security design criteria and technology; and enhanced coordination with local, regional, and state agencies to mitigate the effects of natural and human-made disasters. In assessing the effectiveness of this activity, the best way to determine trans- portation preparedness is by conducting and evaluating emergency exercises. The guidelines in this report have been designed as a reference for transportation exercise coordina- tors. They describe steps in emergency exercise development, implementation, and evaluation and highlight available literature and materials to support transportation agencies, including state depart- ments of transportation (DOTs), transportation management centers, and public transportation systems. References to useful materials are presented in standard bibliographic format, with corresponding uni- form resource locators (URLs) to direct transportation exercise coordinators to web resources. Information provided in the guidelines is based on an extensive literature review, telephone interviews with personnel responsible for developing and evaluating exercises in the transportation environment, and analysis of recent recommendations and guidance provided by the Federal Emergency Manage- ment Agency (FEMA) and the Preparedness Directorate Office of Grants and Training (G&T, formerly the Office for Domestic Preparedness). Both FEMA and the G&T are part of the Department of Home- land Security (DHS). Materials that were developed by contractor teams documenting findings and assessments from exer- cises for the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) were also consulted. Although the guidelines contain the elements of an effective transportation emergency exercise pro- gram, it is important to recognize that transportation agencies alone cannot achieve their preparedness objectives. Emergency management and public safety agencies are the lead stakeholders in ensuring a community's readiness. Transportation professionals must coordinate closely with their peers at these agencies. Many of these peers are now working to improve their capabilities by addressing new require- ments specified in the National Response Plan (NRP) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS), which were both recently released by the DHS. The guidelines in this report build on existing practices to create an integrated emergency response capability that can expand or contract based on the nature of the emergency and that uses technol- ogy and procedures to support the exchange of information among agencies across all levels of gov- ernment. Transportation agencies should be integrated into this emerging system because they may play a major role in primary response actions that might be needed in times of natural or human-made disasters. An effective program of training exercises strengthens the ties between the transportation, emergency management, and public safety communities through partnership, joint activities, and shared exercise improvement plans. GUIDELINES ORGANIZATION The guidelines provide an overview of the process currently recommended for managing an emergency exercise program in the transportation environment. These guidelines are written in plain language in order to be accessible to those who may have little or no experience in exercises. Wherever pos- sible, the guidelines include references to other resources that will be valuable in creating an effec- tive program. The guidelines are organized into five sections. Section 1 provides an introduction to the "Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Drills and Exercises" project; offers a brief overview of why transportation agencies conduct exercises; and 2