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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises at various functional group discussion tables. Players are encouraged to move among the tables periodically to share information and communicate between agencies. Observers: Support the functional groups as they develop responses to the situation in the caucus sessions. Observers are free to migrate among any of the tables during the discus- sion period in order to observe responses or to lend particular expertise. However, they do not participate in the moderated discussion period. Facilitators: Provide situation updates and moderate discussions. They also provide addi- tional information or resolve questions, as required. Facilitators do not evaluate or direct your response. Participants from both the transportation agency and responder agencies may also assist with facilitation as subject matter experts during the tabletop exercise. Exercise Objectives: Identify the stated goals of exercise activities (i.e., the desired end results that participants should achieve with respect to the problem being exercised). Exercise objectives focus on improving an understanding of a response concept, identifying opportunities or problems, and/or achieving a change in attitude. Process and decision making are more important than minor details. Emphasis is on coordination, integration of capabilities, problem identification, and resolu- tion. Attachment 4 lists possible objectives for use in transportation exercises. Exercise Scenario: Provides a sequential account of a hypothetical situation or a chain of events that depicts an incident, emergency, or crisis and all the associated consequences used to frame and guide simulation during an exercise. Attachment 5 provides a sample set of materials to support exercise development and evaluation. Documentation DOCUMENTATION required for tabletops includes Once the design and development activities have been completed and discussed during the IPC, then multimedia the exercise planning team must prepare at least two sets of materials to support the tabletop: presentations and situation manuals, Multimedia presentations and sometimes called player's A situation manual (SITMAN, sometimes called a player's handbook). handbooks. Sample materials Multimedia presentations include PowerPoint presentations, photographs, maps, video clips, and other can be found materials designed to enhance the reality of the tabletop. These presentations are organized into mod- online at ules that support the tabletop. http://trb.org/ news/blurb_detail. For example, the presentations may begin with an introduction to the tabletop (PowerPoint presenta- asp?id=6007. tion), followed by a brief video on the threat to be addressed in the scenario (e.g., flooding in a major urban area or a sarin gas release in a subway system). Then, a PowerPoint presentation may be given on the tabletop objectives and the exercise rules. Next, to support each interval of the scenario, materials such as the following may be used: maps; video- tapes documenting the dispersal of a chemical agent or smoke in a facility; a recording of a 911 call; PowerPoint presentations documenting injuries resulting from accidents, explosions, or symptomology demonstrating exposure to chemical or biological agents; pictures of equipment used to clear debris from roadways; and pictures of control centers, media briefing stations, press conferences, and tempo- rary traffic control strategies. In this manner, information can be effectively conveyed to support the table- top and, in some instances, educate the participants on specific elements of response in the trans- portation environment (e.g., on ways to access vehicles, hazards, and activities to be performed). The SITMAN is a participant handbook for discussion-based exercises. It is particularly effective for tabletops because it provides background information on the exercise scope, schedule, and objectives. 36