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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises APPENDIX B--GLOSSARY OF TERMS Activation. The process by which a facility (e.g., emergency operations center) is brought up to oper- ational status; completion of activation occurs when the facility is prepared to carry out full operational requirements. Activities. Actions carried out to achieve the outputs/results required to measure the accomplish- ment of objectives. They describe what the participant does in terms of deliberate efforts/measures to achieve the objectives. Subactivities appear as smaller, more detailed actions to be carried out as part of the activities. Actor. A staff member who simulates nonparticipating organizations or key nonparticipating individuals. They may come in face-to-face contact with players or perform their functions from a simulation cell (SIMCELL). They may also function semi-independently (e.g., media reporters, next-of-kin, or injured personnel). After Action Report (AAR). A documented report that collects, analyzes, and distributes exercise findings and lessons. The AAR is the basis for development of action plans and input to remedial action programs. It provides feedback for use in planning subsequent exercises. After Action Review. A process designed to provide direct feedback on the accomplishment of selected tasks to evaluate proficiency. An after action review is an analytical review of exercise events that enables exercise participants, through a facilitated professional discussion, to examine actions and results during the exercise. All Hazards. An approach to emergency management that addresses natural disasters and accidental or human-made events, including any natural catastrophe (e.g., hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought); fire; explosion; or other catastrophe, including those involving terrorist use of a weapon of mass destruction in any part of the United States that causes, or may cause, substantial damage or injury to civilian property or persons. Artificiality. Conditions created by the design of an exercise that do not simulate or mirror actual con- ditions. A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) exercise scenario might require some degree of artifi- ciality in respect to the world situation, the circumstances of the incident, the amount of agent released, and the distance traveled by the agent. These artificialities are included to fully energize and challenge the assets of participating organizations. (Technical planners will generally create any artificial effects of WMD agents and the weather used in an exercise.) Assumption. Conditions or factors outside the direct control of exercise planners but so important that they will have to be met or have to hold true if the exercise is to achieve its objectives. If important assumptions are very unlikely to hold true, the exercise must then be redesigned to remove the unlikely assumptions. Brainstorming. A technique of exploring a problem or issue, often in a workshop situation led by a facil- itator, by inviting spontaneous ideas about the topic. These ideas are collected and documented for later discussion and review or analysis. Capability. The ability to perform a task with skill or knowledge or to provide resources to meet a spe- cific requirement. Communications Directory. A two-part exercise document that contains telephone and fax numbers, email addresses, radio frequencies, and other contact information for exercise communications. One part provides all participants with a list of pertinent contact data for players, while the other part provides a limited distribution of controller data. (The communications directory is compiled using participants' inputs and should be tested prior to exercise execution.) 65

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Compressed Time. A compressed exercise timeframe so that several days are played in a few hours. When time is compressed, players need some mechanism to show them where they are chronologi- cally in exercise play. (See also time jump.) Exercises that do not employ compressed time employ real time. Concept Development Meeting/Conference. A meeting that formally begins the exercise planning process and determines the exercise concept and goals. Exercise concept development is usually based on the stated exercise purpose, experience, operations, and historical precedence. This meeting provides initial planning guidance and helps set the agenda and parameters for the initial planning conference. Concept and Objectives (C&O) Paper. The paper that forms the basis for the planning and develop- ment of an exercise, establishing the who, what, when, where, why, and how. It is based on agreements from the initial planning conference and provides exercise planners with the guidelines for continuing the development of an exercise. Exercise design and management structures, as well as roles and responsibilities of participating organizations for exercise planning and development, are also included. Conditions. Performance-affecting variables of an operational environment or situation in which a team, system, or individual is expected to operate. Consequence Management. An emergency management function, including measures to protect pub- lic health and safety; restore essential government services; and provide emergency relief to govern- ments, businesses, and individuals affected by the consequences of a natural or human-made disaster or a terrorist act. At the federal level, FEMA defines consequence management, including the activities described in the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. Constraints. Factors that nurture or cause deficiencies, or problems experienced by participants. Con- straints may be related to resources, to actions, or to the results of actions. Control Cell. Exercise staff personnel who control and manage the flow of the exercise and who may facilitate interfaces with nonparticipating groups--in effect simulating the response and activities of non- participating elements and organizations (see SIMCELL). Control Staff Instructions (COSIN). Instructions containing the guidance that the exercise control staff (including controllers, simulators, and evaluators) need concerning procedures and responsibilities for exercise control, simulation, and support. It is a limited-distribution document for use by exercise con- trollers and evaluators only. The COSIN details the scenario for the duration of the exercise; develops guidelines for control and simulation support of the exercise; explains the exercise concept as it relates to controllers and simulators; establishes the management structure for these activities; establishes and defines the control structure's communications, logistics, and administration; and provides a calendar of key events and the MSEL. Controller. An individual who ensures that objectives are sufficiently exercised to permit a valid evalu- ation, that the level of activity is sufficient to keep players occupied and challenged, and that the progress of the exercise is in accordance with the scenario. Controllers provide key data to players and may prompt or initiate certain player actions to ensure exercise continuity. Controllers are the only nonplay- ers who will provide information or direction to the players. Controllers are used in exercises. Two types of controller have a particularly important responsibility: Chief Controller. The individual responsible for the preparation of the COSIN and for coordina- tion and oversight of the exercise control group, lead controllers, and all individual controllers. Lead Controller. The individual responsible for coordinating controller activities at a specific exer- cise location. 66

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Controller and Evaluator (C/E) Handbook. A handbook that identifies the scope and concept of the exercise, including exercise assumptions, artificialities, and simulations, and provides a ready reference to the exercise storyline during the exercise. It also provides the rules and procedures applicable to con- trollers and evaluators based on guidance in the COSIN and EVALPLAN. Additionally, the handbook may contain guidance on C/E message preparation procedures; unique communications capabilities or requirements; and support for safety, security, and logistics. The handbook is optional and may be used as a supplement if a COSIN is published. Controller Handbook. A handbook that provides controllers with the information necessary to conduct the exercise. The controller handbook contains background information, a basic exercise description, the short MSEL (i.e., the MSEL without implementers) and the long MSEL (i.e., the MSEL with imple- menters). The controller handbook can be used in lieu of a COSIN for small-scale exercises. Controller Inject. A message or action introducing events, data, or other information to players from the control staff to provide an environment that facilitates the demonstration of an activity or attainment of exercise objectives. Coordination. Active involvement of staff and response agencies in decision making to integrate available resources and implement response plans. Counterterrorism. The full range of activities directed against terrorism, including preventive, deter- rent, response, and crisis management efforts. Crisis. A circumstance, event, or series of episodes that threatens to fundamentally affect or alter the way an organization conducts business. Crisis Management. A predominantly law enforcement function including measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a threat or act of terrorism. In a terrorist incident, a crisis management response may include traditional law enforcement missions (such as intelligence, surveillance, tactical operations, negotiations, forensics, and investigations) as well as technical support missions (such as agent identification, search, render-safe procedures [RSPs], transfer and disposal, and limited decontamination). In addition to law enforcement missions, crisis man- agement also includes assurance of public health and safety. Criteria. Principles or standards by which things are judged. Criteria are used to compare various solu- tions against one another and decide among them. Criteria are always linked to the issue under con- sideration (e.g., achievability would be a criterion for deciding on the type of objective). Critique. A meeting of players, facilitators and/or controllers, and evaluators following the conclusion of the exercise activity to discuss and review essential comments on operations and performance noted during exercise play. Descriptive Reporting. A form of evaluation that describes in narrative fashion everything related to the assigned function of the evaluator. Domestic Preparedness. A comprehensive nationwide program to (a) train, equip, exercise, and plan for local, state, and federal actions necessary to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts throughout the entire threat spectrum, including terrorist use of chemical, biological, radiological/nuclear, and explosive WMDs; (b) establish authorities and responsibilities for preparedness activities and response actions and garner the resources to support them; (c) prevent, deter, or respond to terrorism; (d) respond to the consequences of a terrorist attack; and (e) ensure timely and accurate collection and dissemination of terrorism-related intelligence information. Drill. A coordinated, supervised activity usually used to test a single, specific operation or function in a single agency. Drills are commonly used to provide training with new equipment, to develop new poli- 67

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises cies or procedures, to practice and maintain current skills, and to test skills that constitute one or more components of a plan. Emergency. An incident that threatens human life, health, property, or the environment if not controlled, contained, and/or eliminated immediately. The threat of the condition, incident, or event requires imme- diate response actions to save lives; prevent injuries; protect property, public health, the environment, and public safety; or lessen or avert the threat of a disaster. Emergency Management. The prevention of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from the acute effects of an emergency. Emergency Operations Center (EOC). A facility or location from which the overall direction, control, and decision making of an operational response is coordinated. (At the municipal, county, state, and federal levels, EOCs are often staffed with multiorganizational or multidepartmental representatives.) Evaluation. The process used to measure the demonstrated ability to accomplish specified objectives within a discrete exercise. Exercise evaluation refers to the act of reviewing or observing and recording exercise activity or conduct; applying the behavior or activity against exercise objectives; and noting strengths, weaknesses, deficiencies, or other observations. Evaluation Plan (EVALPLAN). A document that establishes the procedures to be used in determining the viability of plans, policies, procedures, systems, and resources. The EVALPLAN provides evalua- tors with guidance on procedures and responsibilities to prepare for evaluation of the exercise, to accom- plish evaluation tasks during and following the exercise, and to explain the evaluation concept and how it relates to each of the participating organizations and entities. The lead evaluator coordinates the pro- cedures to be used by the evaluation team; the structure of evaluation management; and the proce- dures to be followed internally by the evaluation team to communicate and receive logistical and admin- istrative support, to prepare reports, and to address other details. Evaluator. An unbiased technical or functional expert tasked to document responder performance and the adequacy of facilities and equipment against established crisis and consequence management plans and exercise objectives. An evaluator is assigned to one or more exercise functions or locations to doc- ument and evaluate individual, team, and organizational performance based on the exercise objectives and performance criteria. Evaluators provide both positive and negative feedback concerning player per- formance as it relates to objectives. Evaluators are used in all types of exercise activities. Evaluation aims to improve future efforts through recommendations arising from the exercise; its aim is not to judge. Two types of evaluator are particularly important: Chief Evaluator. The individual responsible for preparation of the EVALPLAN, management of the overall evaluation or observation process, oversight of the evaluation team, and compilation of eval- uation data for incorporation into an evaluation report. Lead Evaluator. The individual charged with supervising a group of evaluators at a given exer- cise site. Evaluator Handbook. Material prepared for evaluators to use in performing assigned responsibilities. Events. Realistic problems that occur as a result of the depicted incident. Events motivate player actions. They serve as the foundation for developing controller injects. Exercise. An activity requiring a performance, integration, and coordination of response activities by several individuals and teams, as well as mobilization of personnel and resources. An exercise is car- ried out for the purposes of training and evaluation. Exercise Control Group (ECG). The organizational structure put in place to control the flow of the exer- cise and to ensure that players are provided an environment in which objectives can be achieved. The 68

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises ECG is headed by the exercise director and includes members of the control group specifically respon- sible for monitoring the status of the MSEL and injecting event implementers. Exercise Coordinator. An individual responsible for the overall management and coordination of an exercise activity. Exercise Director. The sponsoring agency's or jurisdiction's responsible agent for the successful con- duct of the exercise. As the senior exercise official, the exercise director has primary authority and over- all responsibility for the design, development, control, and evaluation of the exercise. The exercise direc- tor provides general policy guidance to exercise planners, controllers, simulators, evaluators, and other interested parties. The exercise director also represents participants to higher authority within the crisis and consequence management community and has final approval authority for all exercise documen- tation. During the exercise, the exercise director supervises the activities of the ECG. Exercise Evaluation Report (EER). A comprehensive report of an exercise. An EER typically sum- marizes the scope, scenario, participants, and active play activities. It analyzes the achievement of each objective and may assess the exercise management process. (See after action report.) Exercise Management. The exercise director and the department, agency, and jurisdiction lead plan- ners identified as the focal group responsible for administering and coordinating the design, develop- ment, conduct, and evaluation of exercise activities. Exercise Organization. The group of people responsible for overall planning and control of the exer- cise, including management of the exercise design, development of the exercise scenario, develop- ment of all exercise documentation, preparation of control and evaluation plans, oversight of the exe- cution of the exercise, and preparation of follow-on reports. The exercise organization includes the exercise director and the support structure established to plan, conduct, control, and evaluate the exercise. Exercise Plan (EXPLAN). A plan providing planners and controllers with the information required to conduct the exercise. The EXPLAN contains information on the exercise concept, objectives, assump- tions, artificialities, rules, and responsibilities. The EXPLAN also addresses security and logistical issues, provides public affairs guidance, and details safety considerations during exercise execution. The EXPLAN is made available to all exercise participants; its purposes are to identify the scope and con- cept of play for all players; provide key exercise assumptions, artificialities, and simulations; document scenario narrative leading to the start of the exercise; provide exercise objectives and associated eval- uation elements; explain procedural aspects of exercise play; describe roles of controllers, simulators, and evaluators from the player's viewpoint; and establish administrative and support procedures applic- able to player activity during the exercise. Exercise Planning Team. The exercise staff personnel from the sponsoring agency or jurisdiction and trusted agents from other major participants. The team assists the management team in identifying requirements for administrative, communication, and logistical support; collaborates with planners at all levels on their respective administrative, logistical, and support needs; initiates actions to ensure that adequate support plans are developed and implemented; and assists in coordinating, facilitating, and obtaining inputs for the development and publication of exercise documentation. Exercise Planning Timeline. A sequential list of major milestones in the planning and development of exercise documents and conferences. The exercise planning timeline is flexible and changes as the exercise develops. Expected Actions. Anticipated player response actions prompted by exercise events, generally by a control inject. Expected actions help controllers monitor the exercise and determine if it is on track. They assist evaluators in determining if players are responding in accordance with plans. They are usually described in the implementer for a control inject. 69

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Extent of Play (EOP). The parameters within which specific organizations will participate in an exer- cise. These parameters may limit play by objective, time, or other criterion and must be considered in exercise planning (e.g., EOC staffs will be prepositioned and will not activate the EOC in real time). Facilitator. A specially trained individual assigned responsibility for guiding participant discussions to ensure that key issues are addressed. The facilitator is responsible for the procedure and process of an event (e.g., a workshop, meeting, or tabletop). The facilitator is usually an external person with no stake in the issue at hand; as such, the facilitator is responsible for how an event proceeds, not for the content. Field Location. A geographic location, area, facility, or collection of field operations supported by a single emergency management organization. Final Planning Conference (FPC). The last formal coordination meeting for the full exercise planning community. It is designed to help finalize the exercise organization and the requirements for staffing, scheduling, documentation, control, evaluation, logistics, and administration. The final EXPLAN is dis- tributed following the FPC. Free Play. The policy of allowing players to respond as realistically as possible within design parame- ters and without jeopardizing personnel or safety or expending unnecessary resources. In a free play exercise, player actions rather than control injects will be the driving force to meet objectives. Full-Scale Exercise (FSE). An exercise enabling the validation of major aspects of plans, policies, pro- cedures, systems, and resources and involving all levels of participating organizations. FSEs greatly expand the scope and visibility of the exercise program. FSEs include the mobilization of personnel and resources and the actual movement of crisis and consequence management workers, equipment, and resources required to demonstrate coordination and response capability. Large FSEs actively involve agencies and participants. Functional Exercise. An exercise designed to test and evaluate individual capabilities, multiple func- tions, or activities within a function or interdependent groups of functions. A functional exercise can take place in an operating center, in the field, or a combination of the two. This format is applicable where the activity can be effectively evaluated in isolation from other activities. In contrast to the full-scale exer- cise, the objective of the functional exercise is to demonstrate the execution of specific plans and pro- cedures and the direct application of established policy, plans, and procedures under emergency con- ditions, within or by a particular function team. The functional exercise simulates the reality of operations in a functional area to the maximum degree possible by presenting complex and realistic problems requiring rapid and effective responses by trained personnel in a highly stressful environment. Through documented evaluation and subsequent corrective action, the capabilities of the functional area are improved and weaknesses are reduced or eliminated. Functional exercises are sometimes called "com- mand post" exercises. Hazard. An actual or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment or property and the environment; or degradation to an organizational capability. Hot Wash. An informal, immediate debriefing session between players and members of the exercise planning team, in which players discuss their reactions to and observations of the exercise. Hot washes generally incorporate self-evaluation on the part of the players. Implementer. The vehicle that places an MSEL item into exercise play. Implementers that provide input to players may be electronic, voice, hard copy, or face-to-face (e.g., telephone calls, radio transmissions, email, and the actions of actors). Improvement Program. A common database that contains issues or findings from exercises and actual events, identifies recommended solutions for each issue, assigns responsibility for resolution, and pro- vides a reporting system for tracking the progress of the issue through resolution. 70

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Incident. An event that affects normal operations, requires attention, and has the potential to precipi- tate an emergency or crisis. Initial Conditions. The existing conditions leading up to the start of an exercise. The initial conditions set the stage for the players and are usually presented in written format to players before exercise activ- ities begin. Initial Impressions Report. A compilation of the initial player and controller impressions and observa- tions of the exercise as briefed at the hot wash. The initial impressions report describes the initial impres- sions of the exercise and is an interim to publication of the final AAR. Initial Planning Conference (IPC). The first step in which participating departments, agencies, juris- dictions, and organizations play an active role in exercise planning. The IPC builds the framework for executing exercise design, development, control, conduct, and evaluation. Specifically, the IPC addresses the exercise purpose and overarching exercise objectives, conditions that affect exercise design (e.g., assumptions and artificialities), exercise design requirements, anticipated levels of par- ticipation, proposed exercise locations, control and evaluation methodologies, considerations for devel- opment of the MSEL, and tasks to participants. The IPC presents the basic scenario, scope, and time- line developed during the startup meeting. It offers a chance to solicit input for each participant's objectives and to build consensus among participants on exercise expectations. The purpose of this conference is to reach an agreement on the exercise concept and overall objectives, develop working groups, and select working group leaders. Initial Planning Meeting. A meeting that, depending on the size and scope of an exercise, may meet the requirements for either the concept development meeting or the IPC. Interagency Operations. Operations that involve several departments and agencies of the U.S. gov- ernment. These organizations may include the U.S. Departments of Justice, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, and State; the Environmental Protection Agency; and FEMA. Interagency oper- ations may also include states and other jurisdictions. Issue. A shortcoming or deficiency identified during training or operations that precludes attaining a stated standard and that requires focused problem solving. Key Events List. A list of major events that must occur at specific times in an exercise scenario to ensure that actions required to support exercise objectives occur. MSEL items and controller injects are sequen- tially linked to support each key event. Large-Scale Game. A simulation of a crisis and consequence management operation using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed situation with the objective of simulating a pro- posed plan of action or strategy to test its validity. Lesson Learned. A problem encountered and corrected; a problem for which no solution was found; a successful action noted for future operations; a technique or procedure that allowed the task to be accomplished to standard despite an identified shortcoming and that may be applicable to other short- comings in similar circumstances; or a changed behavior based on previous experiences that con- tributed to mission accomplishment. Master Control Cell (MCC). The exercise director and chief controller. These people have central con- trol over the exercise flow and the activities of the control and simulation staff at all exercise locations. The MCC is the final adjudicating authority regarding issues of exercise control and any major change to exercise scope. Master Scenario Events List (MSEL). A primary exercise control document that includes a chrono- logical list of exercise events, controller injects, and implementers used to stimulate and guide player 71

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises action. Each MSEL item with its implementer specifies what, when, by whom, and to whom injects will be used (including scenario time, event synopsis, expected response, and the objective to be demon- strated if appropriate). Mid-Term Planning Conference (MPC). The MPC is an in-progress review of exercise coordination regarding the independent and interrelated planning actions required by the participating departments, agencies, jurisdictions, and organizations. Mission. A task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. Narrative Report. An objective description of the actions observed by an evaluator during the exercise. A narrative report identifies the issues raised during exercise activities and includes recommendations for improvement. Narrative Summary. A short overview of the exercise scenario written in paragraph form, outlining only the major events. Objectives. The stated goals of exercise activities; the desired and achievable conditions that people strive for with respect to the problem being exercised. Exercise objectives are used to identify the exer- cise scope (specify the functions to be demonstrated), the extent of organization/personnel participa- tion, and the breadth and depth of exercise activities to be accomplished or simulated. Exercise objec- tives specifically describe an activity or capability to be measured. Observer. A person who participates in and monitors the exercise. In some exercises, the observer completes a formal overall evaluation of the exercise, just like an evaluator does. In other exercises (e.g., in tabletops), the observer limits his or her evaluation to feedback regarding specific functions, activities, or disciplines. Participant. An all-inclusive term that describes anyone involved in an exercise (e.g., players, eval- uators, controllers, observers, actors, and role players). Performance Measures. The actions that can be objectively observed and measured to determine if a task performer has performed the task to the prescribed standard. Performance Requirements. The response activities required or expected of the organization, teams, or individuals as established by regulatory mandate, industry standard, or company policy. Performance Standard. A criterion by which operational and management functions can be measured to evaluate the degree to which those functions have achieved a minimum level of quality. Player. An individual who actively participates in an exercise by performing a role in response to the situations presented. Player Handbook. A handbook that provides players with the basic information they need to participate in the exercise. It identifies the scope and concept of play; key exercise assumptions, artificialities, and simulations; and the scenario narrative leading to the start of the exercise. The handbook contains the exercise's unique rules and procedures such as specific player guidance on message preparation, player safety, security, and logistic support. Use of a player handbook is optional; the EXPLAN could be sufficient if read and understood by exercise participants. Point of Review (POR). An account of how the objectives will be demonstrated, what aspects will be physically demonstrated, and what events will be simulated. PORs are series of questions prepared for each objective to aid in collecting the data needed to determine if each objective was successfully demonstrated in an exercise. PORs are qualified and/or quantified parameters that detail the extent to 72

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises which objectives have been achieved within a given timeframe and at a specified location. They repre- sent performance standards and should be objectively verifiable by all persons involved in monitoring and evaluation. PORs are tied directly to plans, policies, procedures, and systems. Procedural Flow Synopsis (PROFLOW). A description of the responsibilities and functions of the orga- nizations responding during the exercise. The PROFLOW provides planners and controllers with a sequential list of anticipated actions by these organizations, including the specific response forces and the plans and policies in effect for the exercise scenario. The PROFLOW also describes the phases of the anticipated response for a WMD incident. Quick-Look Report. (See initial impressions report.) Role Player. (See actor, simulator.) Scenario. A sequential account of a hypothetical situation or chain of events that depicts an incident, emergency, or crisis and all the associated consequences used to frame and guide simulation during an exercise. Scenario Narrative. Brief summary that sets the stage for the exercise, providing background information. Scenario Storyline. A part of the scenario that consists of the chronology of actions that must occur to achieve exercise objectives. The storyline is supported by the key events list and the MSEL. Seminar. An informal discussion in a group setting, in which a seminar leader facilitates the group's focus on a specific topic or issue. Seminars occur in a low-stress environment. Simulation. An artificially produced condition that replicates a real-life situation. In the broad sense, exercises and games are simulations. The term also refers to a method of conducting computer- assisted exercises. Simulation Cell (SIMCELL). The staff with the expertise to respond to player requests for information from nonparticipating departments, agencies, jurisdictions, and organizations and to prepare and inject ad hoc information to maintain the flow and direction of the exercise. In small-scale exercises, the SIMCELL and control cell may be synonymous. Simulator. An individual assigned the responsibility to artificially duplicate (i.e., role play) the response activities of personnel and groups not participating in the exercise. Site Restoration Guide/Site Restoration Plan. A guide that is used when a separate site restora- tion phase is played during an exercise. The plan provides a structure for the site restoration phase of the exercise and describes expected plans and player actions. Situation Manual (SITMAN). The primary exercise document in a tabletop exercise. The SITMAN contains the exercise's unique rules and procedures, the scope and concept of play, exercise assump- tions, artificialities, the lead-in scenario narrative, and situational updates. Standard. The minimum acceptable proficiency required in the performance of a particular task under a specified set of conditions. A standard is defined by the responsible organization's plans, policies, pro- tocols, and procedures and consists of a measure and a criterion: (a) Measure. Provides the basis for describing varying levels of task performance. (b) Criterion. Defines acceptable levels of performance. Subject Matter Expert (SME). An individual who has a thorough knowledge of a job or an area of expertise that qualifies the individual to assist in evaluation, consultation, review, and analysis. 73

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Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises Tabletop Exercise (TTX). An exercise that simulates an emergency in an informal, stress-free, con- ference-room-type environment. Task. A clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals and organizations. Terrorism. The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Terrorism can be domestic or international: Domestic Terrorism. Terrorism that is based and operated entirely within the United States and U.S. territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. gov- ernment or population. International Terrorism. The unlawful use of force or violence committed by a group or individ- ual who has some connection to a foreign power and whose activities transcend national bound- aries against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives. Threat. The known or suspected presence of an actor with the ability, will, and motive to inflict harm. Time Jump. An exercise mechanism by which scenario events may be artificially accelerated to place players in situations that would occur at a future point in time. Time jumps require exercise play to be stopped and then to resume at some future point in time. Time jumps are done to include events that otherwise would not occur in the limited amount of time allowed for an exercise. The control staff or the design of the exercise must provide information to the players regarding activities that may have occurred during the intervening time and provide a revised situation update for exercise resumption. Time jumps are sometimes referred to as time warps. Timeline. A chronology of exercise events or planning milestones. Training. Instruction and applied exercises for the attainment and retention of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Trusted Agent. A member of the exercise planning team or another individual with unique or spe- cialized expertise who is confidentially included in the scenario development to ensure that realistic events are postulated and that appropriate responses are anticipated. Walk-Through. A type of evaluation in which evaluators inspect the physical layout of a facility or area (including equipment, attendant resources, and procedures) to determine conformity with plans, policies, and procedures. Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Any device, material, or substance used in a manner, in a quantity or type, or under circumstances evidencing an intention to cause death or serious injury to persons or significant damage to property. Workshop. A meeting that generally involves briefings and the use of facilitated breakout sessions where preestablished topics and issues are discussed and results of these breakout sessions are reported in a plenum. 74