Click for next page ( 17

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement

Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 16
16 Guide to Contracting ITS Projects START Step 3--Define Project Category(ies) Use outsourc- Now that the work has been distributed to a single project or multiple projects, the third step ing process of the Decision Model involves categorizing each project in terms of its overall complexity and (procure- ment risk. Six factors have been selected to help define complexity and risk: level of new development, package 6 or 7) scope and breadth of technologies, interfaces to other systems, technology evolution, require- STEP 1 ments fluidity, and institutional issues. INITIAL DECISIONS Use Other Table 2 shows how each factor contributes to the definitions of the four ITS project consulting services process being categories. The worksheet in Appendix A has been developed to help guide project catego- (procure- procured. ment Not rization. The worksheet identifies the characteristics of each factor and assigns these fac- package covered 5) by this tors to the following categories of overall complexity and risk: Model. STEP 2 Category 1: Straightforward in terms of complexity and low overall risk Yes WORK DISTRIBUTION Category 2: Moderately complex and moderate overall risk Send Category 3: Complex with high overall risk individual projects Category 4: Extremely complex with a very high overall risk through Use the Project the Category Worksheet in Appendix A to Decision This step and all subsequent steps must be executed for each of the projects defined during Model. help define the Step 2. category. No It is unlikely that the project will fit all of the descriptors within a single category of Table 2. Thus the challenge of this step is to find the overall set of descriptors that best matches the proj- STEP 3 STEP 4 ect's characteristics. This process is not an exact science; therefore, some degree of judgment must DEFINE PROJECT DETERMINE AGENCY CATEGORY(IES) CAPABILITY LEVEL be used. As a general rule, the higher categories entail a greater development risk because these categories contain more unknowns, expressed using such factors as the level of new development STEP 5 entailed and the requirements fluidity. These two factors should receive the highest priority when SELECT APPLICABLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING evaluating the project category. While the worksheet in Appendix A will identify an ITS project PROCESS(ES) & CANDIDATE category range, in the event that the project appears to be equally suited to two different cate- PROCUREMENT PACKAGE(S) gories, the higher category should be selected. Don't forget the ITS project category once you've decided upon it. It will STEP 6 be used along with your defined agency capability level (Step 4) to select an APPLY DIFFERENTIATORS Once you have Schedule appropriate systems engineering process and initial procurement package(s) Constraints selected the project category, don't (Step 5). STEP 7 forget your answer. PACKAGE ASSESSMENT AND FINAL SELECTIONS STEP 8 DEFINE CONTRACT SCOPE AND TERMS & CONDITIONS END

OCR for page 16
The Decision Model 17 Table 2. ITS project categories and associated characteristics. Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Factors Straightforward Moderately Complex Complex Extremely Complex Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Very High Risk Level of New Little to no new Primarily COTS New software Revolutionary Development software development / software / hardware or development for new development - entirely exclusively based on existing software / system, replacement new software COTS software and hardware based with system, or major development including hardware or based on some new software system expansion integration with COTS existing, proven development or new including use of COTS or existing legacy software and hardware. functionality added to software. system software. existing software - Implementation of new Implementation of new evolutionary COTS hardware. COTS hardware or development. even prototype hardware. Scope & Application of proven, Primarily application of Application of new New software Breadth of well-known, and proven, well-known, software / hardware development combined Technologies commercially available and commercially along with some with new hardware technology. Small available technology. implementation of configurations/ scope in terms of May include non- cutting-edge software, components, use of technology traditional use of hardware, or cutting-edge hardware implementation (e.g., existing communication and/or communications only CCTV or DMS technology(ies). technology. Wide technology. Very broad system). Typically Moderate scope in scope in terms of scope of technologies implemented under a terms of technology technologies to be to be implemented. single stand-alone implementation (e.g., implemented. Projects Projects are project, which may or multiple technologies are implemented in implemented in multiple may not be part of a implemented, but multiple phases (which phases (phases may larger multiple-phase typically no more than may be Category 1 or 2 be Category 1 or 2 implementation effort. two or three). May be projects). projects). single stand-alone project, or may be part of multiple-phase implementation effort. Interfaces to Single system or small System implementation System implementation System implementation Other Systems expansion of existing includes one or two includes three or more includes three or more system deployment. major subsystems. major subsystems. major subsystems. No interfaces to May involve significant System interfaces are System requires two or external systems or expansion of existing largely well known but more interfaces to new system interfaces are system. System includes one or more and/or existing well known (duplication interfaces are well interfaces to new internal/external of existing interfaces). known and based and/or existing systems systems and plans for primarily on duplicating / databases. interfaces to "future" existing interfaces. systems. (continued on next page)

OCR for page 16
18 Guide to Contracting ITS Projects Table 2. (Continued). Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Factors Straightforward Moderately Complex Complex Extremely Complex Low Risk Moderate Risk High Risk Very High Risk Technology Need to account for Need to account for Need to account for Need to account for Evolution technology evolution technology evolution technology evolution technology evolution perceived as minor. perceived as an issue perceived as a perceived as major Example would be to to address. Example significant issue. issue. Examples deploy hardware and includes desire for Examples might include include software that software that is entirely interoperable hardware implementation of can easily compatible with an from multiple vendors. software that can accommodate new existing COTS-based Ramifications of not accommodate new functionality and/or system. Ramifications paying particular hardware with minimal changes in hardware of not paying particular attention to standards to no modification and and hardware that can attention to standards may be an issue, as an interoperable hardware. be easily expanded considered minor. agency may get locked Ramifications of not (e.g., add peripherals), System implemented into a proprietary using standards based maintained, and are expected to have solution. Field devices technology are interoperable. moderate to long useful expected to have considerable (costs for Ramifications of not life. moderate to long useful upgrades, new using standards-based life. Center hardware functions, etc.) Field technology are life expectancy is short devices expected to considerable (costs for to moderate. Control have moderate to long upgrades, new software is expected to useful life. Center functions, etc.). Field have moderate to long hardware life devices expected to life. expectancy is short to have moderate to long moderate. Control useful life. Center software is expected to hardware life have an extendable expectancy is short to useful life. moderate. Control software is expected to have an extendable useful life. Requirements System requirements System requirements New system System requirements Fluidity are very well defined, are largely well defined functionality includes a not well defined, understood, and and understood. mix of well-defined, understood, and very unlikely to change over Addition of new system somewhat-defined, and likely to change over time. Formal functionality may fuzzy requirements. time. Requires strict requirements require more attention System implementation adherence to formal management a good to requirements requires adherence to requirements idea, but not a management. formal requirements management necessity. management processes. processes. Institutional Minimal--Project Minor--May involve Significant--Involves Major--Involves Issues implementation coordination between coordination among coordination among involves one agency two agencies. Formal multiple agencies multiple agencies, and is typically internal agreements not and/or multiple departments, and to a particular necessarily required, departments within an disciplines. Requires department within the but if so, agreements agency or amongst new formal agency. are already in place. agencies. Formal agreements. May agreements for require new multi- implementing project agency project may be required. oversight organization.