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The Decision Model 23 Step 6--Apply Differentiators START Use Step 6 should be used when more than one type of procurement package is identified by Table outsourc- ing 4 in Step 5. Step 6 uses the following criteria to help you reduce the number of alternatives: process (procure- ment Systems manager is preferred to design-build when a significant amount of new soft- package 6 or 7) ware development is required. STEP 1 Design-build is preferred over systems manager only for major projects when signif- INITIAL DECISIONS icant amounts of field construction are involved and there is a desire to reduce imple- Use Other consulting services mentation delays associated with having to administer multiple procurement process being (procure- procured. contracts. The schedule constraints input into this step (as depicted in the Decision Model ment Not package covered diagram) highlights the time constraint of implementing a complex system, which makes 5) by this design-build a potentially attractive alternative. Model. The evolutionary systems engineering model is generally preferred over the spiral STEP 2 WORK Yes DISTRIBUTION model because it is less costly and easier to apply. The spiral model should only be Send used in the event that complex, untested, new developments are required. Take another individual projects If a project includes both new software and field construction, consider splitting it look at the need through for consultant the into multiple contracts. assistance before Decision moving on to the Model. Low-bid contracting should be used only next step. In the unlikely event that it is required by agency policy, or No If projects are limited to field construction and supply of off-the-shelf equipment. Commodity procurement is applicable if an existing ITS package is available that does STEP 3 STEP 4 DEFINE PROJECT DETERMINE not require any modification to meet agency's requirements except for CATEGORY(IES) AGENCY CAPABILITY LEVEL New drivers for interface with communications and field equipment, A new database reflecting system configuration, and STEP 5 SELECT APPLICABLE New map graphics. SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROCESS(ES) & If, after considering these differentiators, you still find yourself with multiple solutions, work CANDIDATE PROCUREMENT with your agency's procurement officials to select the preferred alternative (Step 7). PACKAGE(S) Before moving on to Step 7, you may need to re-assess the need for consulting assistance and/or provision of field construction and field equipment supply. In Step 1, this assessment was STEP 6 APPLY based on overall considerations of the extent and type of work to be performed. During Step 6, DIFFERENTIATORS Schedule the needs of the contracting package for consulting assistance should be reviewed. Other Constraints approaches also might require consulting assistance as defined by procurement package 5. For STEP 7 PACKAGE example, the following contracting packages may require consulting assistance: ASSESSMENT AND FINAL SELECTIONS A design consultant must prepare the 100% design and a package of plans, specifications, and estimates (PS&E) to be used during the low-bid process. Therefore, two contracts will be STEP 8 required: one for the design consultant and a second for the low-bid implementation contractor. DEFINE CONTRACT A systems manager contractor is, in effect, a consultant. For this reason, major items of field SCOPE AND TERMS & CONDITIONS construction and the furnishing of field equipment must be performed by contractors selected on a low-bid basis. Therefore, two or more contracts will be required: one for the systems man- ager and additional contracts for construction, electrical contracting, and equipment supply. END These additional contracts will all be low bid. All of this work (construction, electrical Schedule constraints for complex ITS contracting, and equipment supply) may be combined into a single contract for field device projects may make design-build an appropriate alternative. implementation. Low bid is NOT appropriate for projects A design consultant must prepare a 30% design to be used for the selection and negotiations involving software development. with a design-build contractor. Therefore, two contracts are required: one for the design con- sultant and a second for the design-build contractor. Note that some agencies with significant ITS expertise and design personnel on staff (Level 3) could prepare 30% design plans in-house. Commodity procurements often require the services of a systems integrator, systems manager, or design-build contractor to implement the COTS product being acquired.