Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel
Click for next page ( 17


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 16
Chapter 3: The Tool 17 cability ranks provided in Cells F11 through AV112 are used to make an initial review and a gen- eralized comparison of measures. The relative rankings are: 0 = none or not applicable 1 = low 2 = moderate 3 = high A different rank scale is used for service effects in Column H. Service effects ranks are: 0 = no impact -1 = some negative effect -2 = moderately negative effect The user is in a good position to determine the applicability of each GSM to their operations and, as such, is encouraged to make adjustment to the GSMs on their short list. Applicability ranks should be considered within evaluation criteria groups (not between groups). A rank change of more than one may be due to differing considerations of the GSM's characteristics (listed in Worksheet 3, Characterization) or differing understandings of the evaluation criteria as described in Worksheet 1, Evaluation Weights. Thus, careful consideration should be given to applicability ranks that are changed by more than one. This worksheet should be used only to edit applicability ranks. Use Worksheet 3, Characterization, to change GSM descriptions to make the characteristic changes appear in all worksheets. 3.6 Worksheet 5, Costs Figure 6 shows a view of Worksheet 5, Costs. This worksheet provides the user with the oppor- tunity to enter system- and region-specific cost information for the short list of candidate GSMs. This worksheet is Step 6 in Figure 1. The worksheet contains generalized cost information that is based on a small sampling of costs; thus, these cost ranges are rough (i.e., order of magnitude). In some cases, the cost range listed for a GSM is very wide, reflecting the broad range of capabil- ities. For example, IMS screening trace detectors have a cost range listed as $7,000 to $34,000, which represents the approximate costs of small hand-held units up to continuous monitoring systems able to detect a greater variety of agents. Cost references are provided in Column O, with references details in the References worksheet. Before making changes to costs, note that the cost information entered by the user in Columns G through K should reflect the projected needs with respect to system size and reflect any pre- or co-requisites that may be needed. Likely pre- and co-requisites are shown in Columns Q and R. The steps needed for adjusting the costs are: Develop a "new" short list of candidate GSMs (Step 5 in Figure 1) after editing applicability ranks in Worksheet 4 (Step 4 in Figure 1). Determine comparable units for cost comparisons between the GSMs on the short list (e.g., full implementation at all relevant sites in the facility). Make adjustments to low and high initial cost estimates--Columns G and H, respectively. Note the unit of measure in Column I. Adjust the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs in terms of percentage of initial cost per year in Column J. These percentages should assume full operability throughout the GSM operating life.

OCR for page 16
18 Part I: Guide for Evaluating Security Measures for the U.S. Ferry System A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R 1 COSTS AND REQUISITES OF SECURITY MEASURES 2 INSTRUCTIONS: DO NOT SORT on this page!! 3 Enter cost data for the top GSMs identified on Sheet 2 (Valuations). Use GSM # (Column A) to quickly locate your top GSMs on this sheet. Cost information provided is very rough 4 and is often not for full implementation. The cost reference in Column O may provide a beginning for collecting better cost data. Examine the requisite needs in Column Q and R to 5 determine if these should be included in the cost information to be entered. 6 If more specific information is needed in Columns C through E, make these changes on Sheet 3 (Applicablity Ranks). 7 CHARACTERIZATION OF SECURITY MEASURES Cost of a SAMPLE Security Measure Requisites 8 Simple Low Initial High Initial Unit of Annualized Annualized Tech- GSM Cost (IC) Cost (IC) Measure for O&M % Operating Cost Units System Cost Cost nology 9 # Method Category GSM Options and Variations of GSM ($) ($) IC of IC/yr Life (years) ($/yr/unit) Needed ($/yr/syst) Ref Maturity Pre-requisite Co-requisite 10 1 Fencing / Retractable Ramp/ Wedge, Manual or automatic raising and Barriers Vehicle in-ground mounted lowering; some products rated as high Access control for Deterrents as DOS K12/ L3. AC or DC power for operation. High security 25,000 50,000 10-ft unit 7% 20 $4,500 2 $9,000 5, 54 1 raising. requires barriers on each side of the drive. 11 2 Fencing / Retractable Bollards, Hydraulic, electro-hydraulic, or manual Barriers Vehicle retractable retraction into ground. Some products Requires construction Access control for Deterrents (steel or concrete) rated as high as DOS K12/ L3 contractor. May require operation. High security 200 600 single unit 7% 20 $48 15 $720 5, 54 1 depending on installation. electric power for requires barriers on raising. each side of the drive. 12 3 Fencing / Retractable Ramp/ wedge, Manual or automatic operation. Chain Barriers Vehicle surface mounted reinforcements increase anti-ram Level concrete slab for Access control for Deterrents capability, but substantially lower anti- attachment. May require operation. High security 10,000 25,000 10-ft unit 7% 15 $2,392 2 $4,783 5, 54 1 ram ratings than in-ground mounted electric power for requires barriers on ramps (listed separately). raising. each side of the drive. 13 4 Fencing / Retractable Booms and Crash Manual, automatic, or portable. Range Barriers Vehicle Beams from minimal anti-ram capability to Access control for Deterrents (sliding or swing DOS K4/L2 or higher. AC or DC power for operation. High security 3,000 40,000 14-ft unit 7% 15 $2,938 2 $5,877 5, 54 1 gates) opening and closing. requires barriers on each side of the drive. 14 5 Fencing / Retractable Traffic controllers Spring-mounted to allow safe one-way Access control for Barriers Vehicle ("tire teeth") travel, or retractable (with access Flat surface for operation of retractable Deterrents control) to allow two-way travel. Wrong- 2,000 15,000 10-ft unit 5% 10 $1,275 2 $2,550 5 1 installation, good units. High security way penetration distance can be drainage. requires barriers on reduced with low speed conditions. each side of the drive. 15 6 Fencing / Fixed Vehicle Bollards, Variable anti-ram capability. Some Barriers Deterrent, fixed/stationary products rated as high as DOS K12/ L3 Pedestrian (concrete or steel) depending on installation. Requires construction 100 500 single unit 5% 20 $30 15 $450 5, 59 1 None Access contractor. 16 7 Fencing / Fixed Vehicle Decorative Crash- Wide variety of aesthetic options, Barriers Deterrent, Rated Barrier metal or concrete. Variable anti-ram Pedestrian (spheres, benches, capability. Some products rated as 200 1,000 single unit 5% 15 $70 5 $350 7, 8 1 Sufficient space. None Access bike racks, trees, etc.) high as DOS K12/ L3 depending on installation. 17 8 Fencing / Fixed Vehicle Jersey Barriers, Various styles, lengths, shapes, colors, Barriers Deterrent, portable can be arranged end-to-end, or in Moving equipment. Pedestrian (water filled or steel multiple rows, and anchored to Physical attachment to 100 500 10-ft unit 3% 20 $24 10 $240 5, 59 1 None Access reinforced concrete) increase anti-ram capability for mounting surface for equivalence to DOS K12. maximum protection. 18 9 Fencing / Fixed Vehicle Planters Standard planters (i.e., not attached to Barriers Deterrent, (standard) the ground) vary in size. Equipment for Pedestrian 500 1,000 single unit 7% 20 $90 10 $900 5, 59 1 placement, soil and Upkeep of plants Access plants. Figure 6. View of Worksheet 5, Costs. Adjust the expected operating life of the GSM in Column K. Update the relative technology maturity of the GSM in Column P, using the number ranking below. Less mature and less available technologies are more likely to undergo significant changes in cost within several years; thus, cost information for these GSMs should be consid- ered tentative. 1 = Mature, wide commercial availability 2 = Mature, limited commercial availability 3 = Developing technology, wide availability 4 = Developing technology, limited availability Simple annualized cost as $/year/unit is automatically calculated in Column L based on an average initial cost (average of Columns G and H), operating life (Column K), and O&M per- centage of initial cost per year (Column J). Do not change information in Columns A through E. These columns are copies of GSM descrip- tion information from Worksheet 2.