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CHAPTER 2 USFS Security-Related Vessel Characteristics Vessels within the USFS fleet are largely custom made to meet the varied passenger capacity, trip duration, and cargo type demands. This broad variety leads to many logical components or characteristics that can be used to provide an overview of the USFS. This same broad variety also renders the need for the development of security procedures that are system and vessel specific. The primary categories selected for this overview are those that either are currently used for determining the applicability of security regulations or are being considered for possible addi- tional security regulations. Additional categories presented are by commonly distinguished char- acteristics that may have some security implications, but are not important for identifying applicable current security regulations. From the perspective of security regulations, there is no difference between ferry vessels and passenger vessels. (Note: this may not be the case for safety regulations.) All vessels in waters under U.S. jurisdiction are subject to U.S. Coast Guard area security plans, as described in 33 CFR 103. Area security plans include vessel identification and navigation requirements. Further requirements vary with the area. Designation of vessel types for which more stringent national security regulations apply is based on determinations of relative risk, which includes both the likelihood of an event and the magnitude of the effects of an event. According to the National Risk Assessment Tool (N-RAT) as described in the Federal Register, Vol. 68, No. 126, pp. 39, 24439,245, the highest maritime risk involves vessels that have a passenger capacity greater than 2,000. A lesser, but still high risk is associated with vessels that have a passenger capacity greater than 150. Thus, all domestic vessels with passenger capacities in excess of 150 must meet 33 CFR 104, which requires the development of a U.S. Coast Guardapproved vessel security plan (VSP). These plans are to be vessel-specific, living documents that are modified as new issues and meth- ods evolve through experience, including required security drills and exercises. There has been discussion within the U.S. Coast Guard of more stringent security regulations for vessels with passenger capacities of more than 500 and more than 2,000. Thus, these categories of vessels may be of future interest from the standpoint of national security regulations. According to N-RAT, a relatively high risk has also been associated with all vessels that have a regulation tonnage that is more than 100 gross tons. Thus, these vessels must also meet 33 CFR 104 requirements. The applicability of 33 CFR 104 is broader for vessels undergoing international voyages. All vessels on international voyages with more than 12 passengers and at least one for- hire are required to meet 33 CFR 104 requirements or the equivalent regulations under the Inter- national Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). Overall, the distinguishing characteristics of the U.S. ferry fleet from a security regulations per- spective are as follows: International voyages with more than 12 passengers must comply with 33 CFR 104 and SOLAS. Voyages with a passenger capacity of more than 150 must comply with 33 CFR 104. 28