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32 Part II: Characteristics of the U.S. Ferry System Table 3. Annual boardings in the 10 highest-ridership systems. Service System Operator Percentage of Total Annual Boardings (Metropolitan Area) National Boardings New York City DOT (New York City) 19,270,397 17% WA State DOT (Seattle) 15,407,548 14% Circle Line (New York City) 10,856,554 10% NY Waterway (New York City) 7,244,419 6% TX DOT (Houston Galveston) 6,648,007 6% Blue & Gold Fleet (San Francisco) 3,750,000 3% TX DOT (Corpus Christi Port Aransas) 3,000,000 3% Woods Hole/Martha's Vineyard/Nantucket 2,970,000 3% Steamship Authority (not a metropolitan area) LA DOT (New Orleans) 2,512,504 2% NC DOT Ferry Division 2,341,280 2% (not a metropolitan area) TOTAL Boardings of the 10 Highest Systems 74,000,709 66% TOTAL Boardings of All U.S. Ferry Systems 113,332,016 100% Note: These boardings are based on the National Ferry Database. Other sources indicate substantial differences in boarding estimates. For example, an article in the Seattle Times, Oct. 24, 2003, estimates annual Washington State DOT boardings at 26 million ( 2001773286_webferry23.html). 2.4.3 Vessel Cruising Speed and Hull Type Ferry vessels are often categorized by their physical and mechanical characteristics. A vessel's configuration establishes its performance, maneuverability, and limitations on the water. For example, monohull vessel stability is more affected by wave action than catamaran hull vessels are, but catamaran vessels require wider berths for docking. Monohull vessels are the most com- mon in the ferry service, as shown in Table 5. The next most common category is catamarans, which have dual hulls and often greater speed and maneuverability. The remaining 2% of the USFS is a variety of other hull types. Hull shape may affect a vessel's susceptibility to underwater damage, in addition to affecting vessel speed. Both high-speed and maneuverability may reduce a vessel's (a) susceptibility to ramming while underway and (b) hijacking from boarding while underway. Table 4. Number and type of U.S. ferry vessels in service. Number Type of Ferry Vessel of Vessels 341 Passenger Only 326 Roll-On/Roll-Off 10 Railroad Carfloat 677 Total

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Chapter 2: USFS Security-Related Vessel Characteristics 33 Table 5. Hull types and service types from the National Ferry Database. Service Type Total Hull Type Roll-On/ % Total Passenger Only Rail Carfloat Vessels Roll-Off Monohull 271 320 10 601 89% Catamaran 57 1 0 58 9% Other multi-hull 0 1 0 1 <1% Hydrofoil 2 0 0 2 <1% Other 7 4 0 11 <2% NULL 4 0 0 4 <1% TOTAL 341 326 10 677 100% Note 1. U.S. Department of Transportation. Federal Highway Administration, Intermodal and Statewide Programs Division, National Ferry Study, National Ferry Database, December 2000.