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CHAPTER 3 USFS Terminal and Area Characteristics The security at ferry terminals is addressed in 33 CFR 105. Terminal facilities are required to conduct a facility security and vulnerability assessment and develop a facility security plan (FSP) that meets captain of the port (COTP) approval if they receive any of the following: · Vessels with passenger capacities greater than 150, · Vessels on international voyages that have more than 12 passengers and one for-hire (i.e., vessels that fall under SOLAS), and · Cargo vessels that have more than 100 gross register tons. Exemptions are made for facilities that receive vessels with passenger capacities greater than 150 if the vessels are not carrying passengers. Area security plans (ASPs) are required for all waterways under U.S. jurisdiction (33 CFR 103). These plans are developed by the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Committee after completion of an area maritime security assessment (AMSA). Currently, there are almost 600 terminals in the USFS, and more than half of these terminals are located in 10 states. Nationally, only a small number of these 600 terminals process 1 million or more passengers and vehicles annually. Ferry terminals can be enclosed buildings that support an operator's business functions and may shelter small retail or other waterfront services. In other instances, a small building supporting a fare purchasing window and a dock for boarding and alighting passengers and/or vehicles is considered a ferry terminal. Most ferry terminals are acces- sible to vehicles. On-site parking is available at 55% of all ferry terminals. Many terminals have public access areas, but often restrict access to boarding and debarking areas to fare-paying cus- tomers. Drop-off areas for passengers, luggage, or both are particular security concerns because they increase the hazards of vehicle-borne incendiary and explosive devices (IEDs) by reducing standoff distances and may limit ability to screen passenger luggage. Some of the considerations in conducting vulnerability assessments and developing security plans under 33 CFR 105 may include docks, moorings, and gangways, which are briefly described in Section 3.1. Other areas with security implications are fare collection, waiting areas, and vessel loading, which are described in Section 3.2.Waterway area effects are briefly discussed in Section 3.3, and types of ownership/operation are discussed in Section 3.4. 3.1 Docks, Moorings, and Gangways Docking configurations at ferry terminals depend on the type of vessels received. Vehicle fer- ries are typically end-loaded and, hence, have dock facilities that accommodate this process, as illustrated in Figure 3. Vehicles to be loaded are temporarily stored at landside or dockside vehicle staging areas. Passenger-only ferries are typically side-loaded, although some newer passenger-only 34
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Chapter 3: USFS Terminal and Area Characteristics 35 Source: TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition, Transportation Research Board, 2004, page 6-5. Figure 3. Diagram of vehicle staging area in relation to ferry vessel. ferries are end-loaded. The most typical dock design has parallel berths, such as the design shown in Figure 4. Some dock facilities may have a variety of berthing arrangements to facilitate a range of vessel types. Many ferries use gangways to provide a temporary ramp from the vessel to a dock- side platform. Mooring procedures and gangway technology vary considerably from location to location and vessel to vessel. Some examples of mooring procedures include the following: · Fasten three lines between the vessel and a shoreside platform. · Fasten one line and place a heavy gangway on the vessel to secure it to a shoreside platform. · Use a rack system to guide the vessel to the dock, then place the mooring hooks and gangways. Source: TCRP Report 100: Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 2nd Edition, Transportation Research Board, 2004, page 6-9. Figure 4. Typical ferry terminal design.